HetNet Ecosystem (Small Cells, Carrier WiFi, C-RAN & DAS) Market 2015: Industry Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

Driven by the thriving ecosystem, we expect small cell, carrier WiFi, C-RAN and DAS networks to account for over 80% of all mobile data traffic by the end of 2020, while overall spending on HetNet infrastructure is expected to reach $40 Billion annually during the same period.

Driven by in-building wireless coverage requirements and the growing influx of mobile broadband data traffic, a traditional macrocell based cellular network deployment is not deemed to be a sufficient solution to address the coverage and capacity needs of today’s wireless subscribers.

Wireless carriers are thus increasing their investments in Heterogeneous Network or HetNet infrastructure such as strategically deployed small cells, carrier WiFi and DAS (Distributed Antenna System) nodes, to cope with increasing capacity and coverage requirements. Adding further to the heterogeneity is the shift towards a C-RAN (Centralized RAN) architecture, which centralizes baseband functionality to be shared across a large number of distributed radio nodes. In comparison to standalone clusters of base stations, C-RAN provides significant performance and economic benefits such as baseband pooling, enhanced coordination between cells, virtualization, network extensibility and energy efficiency.

Driven by the thriving ecosystem, we expect small cell, carrier WiFi, C-RAN and DAS networks to account for over 80% of all mobile data traffic by the end of 2020, while overall spending on HetNet infrastructure is expected to reach $40 Billion annually during the same period.

The “HetNet Ecosystem (Small Cells, Carrier WiFi, C-RAN & DAS): 2015 – 2020 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of 6 individual submarkets of the HetNet infrastructure opportunity.  Besides analyzing key market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, standardization initiatives, future roadmap, value chain, deployment case studies, vendor profiles, and strategic recommendations, the report also presents revenue and unit shipment forecasts for 6 submarkets from 2015 to 2020 at a regional as well as a global scale. Historical figures are also provided for 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2014.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from over 300 numeric forecasts presented in the report.

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics:

  • Technology and market size assessment for 6 HetNet submarkets: small cells, carrier WiFi, C-RAN, DAS, small cell backhaul and C-RAN fronthaul
  • Integration and offloading technology
  • Market drivers and key benefits
  • Challenges and Inhibitors
  • Industry roadmap and value chain
  • HetNet deployment models and case studies
  • SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service)
  • Vertical markets for HetNet deployments
  • Standardization and regulatory initiatives
  • Market prospects of enterprise RAN and LTE-U deployments
  • Public safety and military centric LTE small cells
  • SON (Self-Organizing Network) technology for HetNet infrastructure
  • Vendor landscape, acquisitions and market share for small cells, carrier WiFi, C-RAN and DAS
  • Company profiles and strategies of over 350 ecosystem players including infrastructure vendors and enabling technology providers
  • Strategic recommendations for HetNet infrastructure vendors, wireless carriers and macrocell infrastructure vendors

Historical Revenue & Forecast Segmentation

Market forecasts and historical revenue/unit shipment figures are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

  • Small Cells
  • Carrier WiFi
  • C-RAN (Centralized RAN)
  • DAS (Distributed Antenna System)
  • Small Cell Backhaul
  • C-RAN Fronthaul
  • SON (Self-Organizing Network) Solutions
  • SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service)
  • Mobile Network Data Service

Small cell forecasts (unit shipments, revenue) are categorized in the following  categories:

  • RAN Technology
  • GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA
  • CDMA-2000/EV-DO
  • LTE FDD
  • TD-LTE
  • WiMAX

Deployment Model

  • Home/Residential
  • Enterprise
  • Metro
  • Rural

Cell Size

  • Femtocells
  • Picocells
  • Microcells

Carrier WiFi forecasts (unit shipments, revenue) are categorized in the following  categories:

  • Equipment Category
  • Access Points
  • Access Point Controllers

Integration Approach

  • Managed WiFi Offload
  • Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi

C-RAN forecasts (unit shipments, revenue) are categorized in the following  categories:

  • RRH (Remote Radio Head)
  • C-RAN Architecture Small Cell
  • BBU (Baseband Unit)
  • Fronthaul

DAS node forecasts (unit shipments, revenue) are categorized in the following  categories:

  • Indoor DAS Nodes
  • Outdoor DAS Nodes

Small cell backhaul forecasts (revenue) are categorized in the following technology categories:

  • Ethernet
  • DSL Modems and DSLAMs
  • Microwave
  • Millimeter Wave
  • Satellite

C-RAN fronthaul forecasts (revenue) are categorized in the following technology categories:

  • Dedicated Fiber
  • WDM
  • OTN & PON
  • Ethernet
  • Microwave
  • Millimeter Wave

Mobile network data service forecasts (throughput, revenue) are categorized in the following access network technology categories:

  • Macrocell & C-RAN Networks
  • Small Cells
  • Carrier WiFi
  • DAS

Regional forecasts are categorized in the following 6 categories

  • North America
  • Asia Pacific
  • Western Europe
  • Eastern Europe
  • Middle East & Africa
  • Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered

The report provides answers to the following key questions:

  • How is the HetNet infrastructure market evolving by segment and region? What will the market size be in 2020 and at what rate will it grow?
  • What trends, challenges and barriers are influencing its growth?
  • Who are the key vendors in the market, what is their market share and what are their strategies?
  • How is the HetNet value chain structured and how will it evolve overtime?
  • What opportunities does the HetNet ecosystem offer to infrastructure vendors and other players involved in the value chain?
  • What strategies should infrastructure vendors and wireless carriers adopt to capitalize on the HetNet opportunity?
  • What will be the installed base of small cells and carrier WiFi access points in 2020?
  • What is the service revenue for mobile data services delivered over small cells, carrier WiFi, DAS, C-RAN and macrocells, and how will it grow overtime?
  • How are investments on DAS technology impacting small cell deployments?
  • How will carrier WiFi fit into future mobile network architectures for access and offload?
  • What is the C-RAN concept, and how are small cell vendors capitalizing on it?
  • What is LTE-U and how will impact unlicensed WiFi spectrum?
  • Is there a market for rural small cell deployments?
  • Which technology will be predominant in the small cell backhaul ecosystem and is there a market for satellite based small cell backhaul?
  • Is Ethernet a feasible solution to for C-RAN fronthaul?
  • What are the future prospects of millimeter wave technology for backhaul and fronthaul deployments?
  • How big is the opportunity for enterprise centric RAN deployments?
  • Can small cells help in accelerating LTE deployments for the military, public safety and other verticals?

Key Findings

The report has the following key findings:

  • Despite an ongoing decline in traditional macrocell infrastructure spending, small cells, carrier WiFi, C-RAN, DAS, small cell backhaul and C-RAN fronthaul investments will continue to grow over the coming years. By the end of 2020, the market will account for nearly $40 Billion in revenue
  • HetNet infrastructure is expected to carry more than 80% of all mobile network data traffic by 2020
  • Driven by the promise of higher capacity in unlicensed spectrum, LTE-U small cell shipments are expected to grow at a CAGR of 80% between 2016 and 2020. By the end of 2020, LTE-U investments will account for nearly $2 Billion
  • As wireless carriers look to migrate towards scalable centralized baseband architectures, C-RAN investments will grow at a CAGR of 23% between 2015 and 2020. By the end of 2020, C-RAN investments will account for nearly $14 Billion
  • Eyeing the momentum behind C-RAN, a number of small cell vendors such as Airvana and SpiderCloud, have aligned their offerings with the C-RAN concept
  • At present, the HetNet value chain is highly fragmented with ‘pure-play’ specialists and incumbent macrocell vendors battling to gain a higher share of the market. SNS Research expects the value chain to consolidate over the coming years following a string of acquisitions by industry giants such as Nokia

List of Companies Mentioned

  • 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
  • 3GPP2 (3rd Generation Partnership Project 2)
  • 3Roam
  • 4ipnet
  • 4RF
  • 6WIND
  • Aalborg University
  • Aalto-University
  • ABB
  • Ablaze Wireless
  • Accedian Networks
  • Accelink Technologies
  • Accelleran
  • Accuris Networks
  • AceAxis
  • Actelis Networks
  • Actiontec
  • Actus Networks
  • Adax
  • ADB
  • ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
  • ADLINK Technology
  • ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)
  • ADTRAN
  • ADVA Optical Networking
  • Advantech Wireless
  • Aeroflex
  • Aerohive Networks
  • Affarii Technologies
  • Affirmed Networks
  • AINMT Holdings
  • Airbus Group
  • Aircom International
  • AirHop Communications
  • Airspan Networks
  • Airvana
  • AKM (Asahi Kasei Microdevices)
  • ALAXALA Networks
  • Albis Technologies
  • Alcatel-Lucent
  • ALCOMA
  • Allied Data Technologies
  • Allied Telesis
  • Allot Communications
  • Alpental Technologies
  • Alpha Networks
  • Altera Corporation
  • Altiostar Networks
  • Alvarion Technologies
  • Amarisoft
  • Amdocs
  • América Móvil
  • American Tower Corporation
  • Anite
  • Anritsu Corporation
  • APT
  • Aptilo Networks
  • Aquantia
  • Arcadyan Technology Corporation
  • Argela
  • ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
  • Aricent
  • Arieso
  • ARItel
  • ARM Holdings
  • Arqiva
  • Arris
  • Artemis Networks
  • Aruba Networks
  • Ascenta
  • Ascom International
  • Askey Computer Corporation
  • ASOCS
  • Astellia
  • ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
  • AT&T Mobility
  • Athena Wireless Communications
  • Autelan
  • Avago Technologies
  • Avanti Communications
  • Aviat Networks
  • AVM
  • Axell Wireless
  • Axis Teknologies
  • Axxcelera Broadband Wireless
  • Azcom Technology
  • BandwidthX
  • BBC
  • Beeline
  • Beeline Kazakhstan
  • Benetel
  • Bharti Airtel
  • Binoptics
  • Bird Technologies
  • Birdstep Technology
  • Black Box Corporation
  • BLiNQ Networks
  • Blu Wireless Technology
  • BluWan
  • BMW
  • Bouygues Telecom
  • BridgeWave Communications
  • Broadband Forum
  • Broadcom
  • Brocade Communications Systems
  • Browan Communications
  • BSG (Billing Services Group)
  • BSG Wireless
  • BT
  • BTI Systems
  • BTI Wireless
  • CableFree Solutions
  • Cadence Design Systems
  • Calix
  • Cambium Networks
  • Canoga Perkins
  • Carlson Wireless Technologies
  • Casa Systems
  • Cavium
  • CBNL (Cambridge Broadband Networks Ltd.)
  • CCI (Communication Components Inc.)
  • CCI (Competitive Companies, Inc.)
  • CCI (Crown Castle International)
  • CCI Systems
  • CCS (Cambridge Communication Systems)
  • CeedTec
  • Cellcom
  • Cellcom Israel
  • Cellwize
  • Celtro
  • Ceragon
  • Chalmers University of Technology
  • China Mobile
  • China Telecom
  • China Unicom
  • Chunghwa Telecom
  • Cielo Networks
  • Ciena Corporation
  • Cisco Systems
  • ClearSky
  • Cloudberry Mobile
  • Cobham
  • Cobham Wireless
  • Coherent Logix
  • Colt Telecom
  • Comba Telecom Systems Holdings
  • Comcast
  • Comcores ApS
  • CommAgility
  • CommScope
  • Comtrend
  • Connected Digital Catapult
  • Connectem
  • Contela
  • ConteXtream
  • Corecess
  • Corning
  • Cosmote
  • Cox Communications
  • CS Corporation
  • CSI (Cellular Specialties, Inc.)
  • CTIA (The Wireless Association)
  • Cyan
  • D2 Technologies
  • Dali Wireless
  • DASAN Networks
  • Datang Mobile
  • Dell
  • DeltaNode
  • Direct Beam
  • D-Link Corporation
  • DoCoMo Euro-Labs
  • DoCoMo interTouch
  • Dongwon Group
  • Dongwon T&I
  • DragonWave
  • DT (Deutsche Telekom)
  • eASIC Corporation
  • E-Band Communications
  • E-Blink
  • ECI Telecom
  • Eden Rock Communications
  • Edgewater Wireless Systems
  • EDX Wireless
  • EE
  • EION Wireless
  • Elva-1
  • EM3 (Enterprise M3)
  • Eoptolink Technology
  • ERCOM
  • Ericsson
  • Ethertronics
  • Etisalat
  • ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Korea)
  • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
  • European Commission
  • Exalt Communications
  • EXFO
  • ExteNet Systems
  • Extreme Networks
  • EZchip Semiconductor
  • Facebook
  • Faraday Technology Corporation
  • FastBack Networks
  • Federated Wireless
  • Femtel (Suzhou Femtel Communications)
  • Fiberhome Technologies
  • FibroLan
  • Finisar Corporation
  • Firetide
  • Fortinet
  • Foxcom
  • Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft
  • Free Mobile
  • Freescale Semiconductor
  • Front Porch
  • Fujitsu
  • Fujitsu Laboratories of Europe
  • Galtronics
  • Gemtek Technology Company
  • GENBAND
  • Genmix Technology
  • GigaLight (Shenzhen Gigalight Technology Company)
  • Gilat Satellite Networks
  • GlobalFoundaries
  • Globe Telecom
  • GoNet Systems
  • Goodman Networks
  • Google
  • GrenTech (China GrenTech Corporation)
  • GSMA (GSM Association)
  • GWT (Global Wireless Technologies)
  • Handlink Technologies
  • HetNet Forum
  • HFR
  • HG Genuine
  • Hisense (Hisense Broadband Multimedia Technology)
  • Hitachi
  • Hitachi CTA (Communication Technologies America)
  • HP (Hewlett-Packard Company)
  • Huahuan
  • Huawei
  • Hughes Network Systems
  • Hutchinson 3
  • HXI
  • IBM
  • IBM Microelectronics
  • iBwave Solutions
  • iDirect
  • IMEC International
  • InfoVista
  • InnerWireless
  • InnoLight Technology Corporation
  • Institut Mines-Télécom
  • Intel Corporation
  • InterDigital
  • Intracom Telecom
  • ip.access
  • IPITEK
  • iPosi
  • Iskratel
  • ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
  • ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
  • Ixia
  • JDSU (JDS Uniphase Corporation)
  • JMA Wireless
  • JRC (Japan Radio Company)
  • Juni Global
  • Juniper Networks
  • Kathrein-Werke KG
  • KDDI
  • KEYMILE
  • Keysight Technologies
  • Kineto Wireless
  • Kisan Telecom
  • KMW
  • Koch Industries
  • KT Corporation
  • KTHRoyal Institute of Technology
  • Kumu Networks
  • Lattice Semiconductor
  • Lemko
  • LG Uplus
  • LGS Innovations
  • LightPointe Communications
  • Lime Microsystems
  • Loea Corporation
  • Lumentum Holdings
  • Macom (M/A-COM Technology Solutions)
  • Mavenir
  • MAX4G
  • Maxim Integrated
  • McWane
  • MegaFon
  • MER-CellO Wireless Solutions
  • Meru Networks
  • MetroPCS
  • Microlab (Wireless Telecom Group)
  • Microsemi Corporation
  • Microwave Networks
  • MIMOon
  • MIMOtech
  • Ministry of Industry, Development and Reform Commission, China
  • Mitel
  • Mitel Networks Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Mobily
  • Mobiveil
  • Moldtelecom
  • Molex
  • Mosaic Telecom
  • Moseley Associates
  • MOST (Ministry of Science & Technology, China)
  • Movistar
  • Movistar Venezuela
  • MRV Communications
  • MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea)
  • MTC
  • MTI Mobile
  • MTN
  • MTS (Mobile TeleSystems)
  • Nash Technologies
  • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • NBN
  • NEC Corporation
  • Neotel
  • NETGEAR
  • Netgem
  • Network Norway
  • New Postcom Equipment Company
  • New York University
  • NewNet Communication Technologies
  • Nexcomm Systems
  • Nexius
  • Nextivity
  • NexxComm Wireless
  • NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance
  • Node-H
  • Nokia
  • Nokia Networks
  • Nomadix
  • Nomor Research
  • NTT Broadband Platform
  • NTT DoCoMo
  • NTTBP (NTT BroadbandPlatform)
  • NuRAN Wireless
  • Nutaq
  • NXP Semiconductors
  • Oceus Networks
  • Octasic
  • OE Solutions
  • Ofcom
  • Omnitron Systems
  • OneAccess Networks
  • ONF (Open Networking Foundation)
  • Openstack
  • Oplink Communications
  • Optimus Portugal
  • Optulink
  • Optus
  • Orange
  • Orange Romania
  • Outremer Telecom
  • Overture Networks
  • P.I. Works
  • Panasonic Corporation
  • Panda Electronics (Nanjing Panda Electronics Company)
  • Parallel Wireless
  • PCCW
  • Phillips
  • Pletronics
  • PMC-Sierra
  • Polaris Networks
  • Polewall
  • Portugal Telecom
  • Positron
  • Potevio (China Potevio Company)
  • Poznan University of Technology
  • Procera Networks
  • Proxim Wireless Corporation
  • Public Wireless
  • PureWave Networks
  • QEOS
  • Qualcomm
  • Quanta Computer
  • Qucell
  • Qulsar
  • Quortus
  • Qwilt
  • RACOM
  • RAD Data Communications
  • RADCOM
  • Radisys Corporation
  • RADWIN
  • Rakon
  • Red Hat
  • Redline Communications
  • Reverb Networks
  • RF DSP
  • RF Window
  • RFNet Technologies
  • RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)
  • Rohde & Schwarz
  • Roke Manor
  • Rosenberger
  • Ro-Timak Technology
  • Ruckus Wireless
  • RWTH Aachen
  • SAF Tehnika
  • Sagemcom
  • Saguna Networks
  • SAI Technology
  • Samji Electronics Company
  • Samsung
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Senao Networks
  • SerComm Corporation
  • SES S.A.
  • SFR
  • SIAE Microelectronics (SIAE Microelectronica)
  • SiBEAM
  • Siklu
  • Singtel (Singapore Telecommunications)
  • Sistelbanda
  • SK Telecom
  • SK Telesys
  • SkyFiber
  • Skype
  • Small Cell Forum
  • Smart Communications (Philippines)
  • SMC Networks
  • Smith Micro Software
  • SoftBank Corporation
  • SoftBank Mobile
  • Solectek
  • SOLiD (SOLiD Technologies)
  • Somtel
  • Source Photonics
  • SpectrumMax
  • SpiderCloud Wireless
  • Sprint Corporation
  • Star Microwave
  • Star Solutions
  • StarHub
  • Sub10 Systems
  • Sumitomo Electric Industries
  • Sunnada (Fujian Sunnada Communication Company)
  • Swisscom
  • Syniverse Technologies
  • Taqua
  • Tarana Wireless
  • Tata Elxsi
  • Tata Group
  • TE Connectivity
  • Tecom
  • TEKTELIC Communications
  • Telco Systems
  • Telecom Italia
  • Telefónica
  • Telefónica UK
  • Telekom Austria
  • Telenor Group
  • TeliaSonera
  • Telkomsel
  • Tellabs
  • Tellion
  • Tellumat
  • Telrad Networks
  • Telsey
  • Telstra
  • Telum
  • TEOCO Corporation
  • TESSCO Technologies
  • TI (Texas Instruments)
  • TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
  • Tilera Corporation
  • Tilgin
  • TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
  • TIM Brazil
  • Titan Aerospace
  • T-Mobile Austria
  • T-Mobile US
  • TOT Thailand
  • Towerstream
  • TP-LINK Technologies
  • Trango Systems
  • Transmode
  • Tranzeo Wireless Technologies
  • Tropos Networks
  • Tulinx
  • Ubiquiti Networks
  • Ubiquoss
  • U-blox
  • UN (United Nations)
  • UNICOM Global
  • Universitaet Bremen
  • Universitat Politècnica de València
  • University of Kaiserslautern
  • University of Oulu
  • University of Surrey
  • UTStarcom
  • Vectron International
  • Verizon Wireless
  • Viavi Solutions
  • Vimpelcom
  • Virgin Media
  • Vitesse Semiconductor Corporation
  • Vivo
  • VMware
  • Vodafone Australia
  • Vodafone Czech Republic
  • Vodafone Germany
  • Vodafone Greece
  • Vodafone Group
  • Vodafone Hungary
  • Vodafone Ireland
  • Vodafone Italy
  • Vodafone Netherlands
  • Vodafone New Zealand
  • Vodafone Portugal
  • Vodafone Qatar
  • Vodafone Romania
  • Vodafone Spain
  • Vodafone UK
  • VPIsystems
  • Vubiq Networks
  • Wave1
  • Wavesight
  • Wavion
  • WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)
  • WeFi
  • Westell Technologies
  • WiFi Alliance
  • WiMAX Forum
  • Wind River
  • WiPro
  • WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
  • Wytec International
  • Xavi Technologies
  • Xceed Technologies
  • XCellAir
  • Xelic
  • Xilinx
  • Yamaha Corporation
  • Zain Bahrain
  • Zain Kuwait
  • Zain Saudi Arabia
  • Z-Com (ZDC Wireless)
  • Zebra Technologies Corporation
  • Zhone Technologies
  • Zinwave
  • ZTE
  • ZyXEL

Countires Covered

  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Bangladesh
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia & Herzegovina
  • Brazil
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Croatia
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Kenya
  • Luxembourg
  • Malaysia
  • Mexico
  • Morocco
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Nigeria
  • Norway
  • Pakistan
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Qatar
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Serbia
  • Singapore
  • Slovakia
  • South Africa
  • South Korea
  • Spain
  • Sudan
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • UAE
  • UK
  • Ukraine
  • Uruguay
  • USA
  • Uzbekistan
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam

Table of Contents

1 Chapter 1: Introduction 42
1.1 Executive Summary 42
1.2 Topics Covered 44
1.3 Historical Revenue & Forecast Segmentation 45
1.4 Key Questions Answered 49
1.5 Key Findings 51
1.6 Methodology 52
1.7 Target Audience 53
1.8 Companies Mentioned 54

2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Small Cells, Carrier WiFi, C-RAN & DAS 61
2.1 An Evolving Heterogeneous Networking Ecosystem 61
2.1.1 The Growing Demand for Mobile Broadband 61
2.1.2 Is LTE the Answer to all Capacity Problems? 61
2.1.3 HetNets: An Evolution of Network Topology 63
2.2 Small Cells 64
2.2.1 What Are Small Cells? 64
2.2.2 Why Deploy Small Cells? 64
2.2.3 Small Cell Categories 66
2.2.3.1 Femtocells – Home (e)NBs 67
2.2.3.2 Picocells 67
2.2.3.3 Microcells 67
2.2.3.4 Metrocell: An Emerging Deployment Model 68
2.2.3.5 Will Metrocell Deployments Encompass Carrier Deployed Femtocells? 68
2.3 Carrier WiFi 69
2.3.1 Carrier WiFi Integration Approaches 70
2.3.2 Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ 70
2.3.3 Managed Offload 70
2.3.3.1 SIM-based Authentication and Mobile Data Offload 70
2.3.3.2 Fully Integrated WiFi Access 70
2.4 C-RAN (Centralized RAN) 71
2.4.1 What is C-RAN? 71
2.4.2 Architectural Benefits and Challenges 71
2.4.3 Key Architectural Components 73
2.4.3.1 RRH (Remote Radio Head) 73
2.4.3.2 C-RAN Architecture Small Cell 73
2.4.3.3 BBU (Baseband Unit) 74
2.4.3.4 Fronthaul Networking Gear 74
2.5 DAS (Distributed Antenna System) 75
2.5.1 What is DAS? 75
2.5.2 Passive DAS 75
2.5.3 Hybrid DAS 75
2.5.4 Active DAS 76
2.6 Alternative Options for Offloading Mobile Network Coverage and Capacity 76
2.6.1 Macrocell Network and Spectrum Expansion 76
2.6.2 Caching & Mobile CDNs 76
2.7 The Business Case: What is Driving the HetNet Market? 78
2.7.1 Mobile Data Traffic: The Tsunami of 335 Exabytes 78
2.7.2 Endorsement from the Carrier Community 79
2.7.3 In-Building Coverage and Capacity 80
2.7.4 Enterprise Demand: BYOD is Fuelling Growth 80
2.7.5 Capacity Offload in Congested Localities 80
2.7.6 CapEx Savings 80
2.7.7 Non-Expandability of Macrocell Network 81
2.8 Challenges & Inhibitors to the HetNet Ecosystem 82
2.8.1 Security Concerns 82
2.8.2 Competing HetNet Solutions: DAS vs. Indoor Small Cells 82
2.8.3 Interference with Macrocell Infrastructure & Spectrum Constraints 83
2.8.4 Backhaul Requirements and Complexity 83
2.8.5 C-RAN Fronthaul Challenges 83
2.8.6 Commercial Immaturity 84
2.8.7 Economic Constraints 84
2.8.8 Device Side, Client and OS Issues 84
2.8.9 Deployment Challenges 84
2.8.10 Integrating Segregated WiFi Infrastructure into Mobile Networks 85
2.8.11 Impact of Macrocell LTE Rollouts: Negative or Positive? 85

3 Chapter 3: Integration & Offloading Technology 86
3.1 Integrating Small Cells into the Mobile Network 86
3.1.1 Integration into 3G Networks 86
3.1.1.1 Iuh based Integration: Residential/Enterprise Femtocells 86
3.1.1.2 Iub: Picocells, Microcells and Now Even Femtocells 88
3.1.2 S1: Integration into LTE Networks 89
3.1.2.1 eNB Small Cell Architecture 89
3.1.2.2 HeNB Small Cell Architecture 90
3.2 Integrating C-RAN into the Mobile Network 90
3.2.1 CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) 90
3.2.2 OBSAI (Open Base Station Architecture Initiative) 90
3.2.3 ORI (Open Radio Interface) 91
3.2.4 Ethernet-based Solutions 91
3.3 WiFi: The Evolution from an Ethernet Extension to Wireless Carrier Integration 92
3.4 Enabling Technologies for WiFi and Cellular RAN Interoperability 92
3.4.1 ANDSF (Access Network Discovery and Selection Function) 92
3.4.1.1 Enabling Seamless Mobility 93
3.4.1.2 Commercial Availability of ANDSF Solutions 93
3.4.2 Hotspot 2.0 93
3.4.2.1 Discovery – 802.11u 93
3.4.2.2 Encryption – 802.11i (WPA2) 94
3.4.2.3 Authentication – 802.1x (EAP) 94
3.4.2.4 OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) DM (Device Management) 94
3.4.2.5 Passpoint WiFi Certification 95
3.4.3 NGH (NextGen Hotspot) Program 95
3.4.3.1 Working alongside Hotspot 2.0 96
3.4.3.2 Enabling Seamless Mobile Network Connectivity 96
3.4.4 I-WLAN (Interworking Wireless LAN) 96
3.4.5 WISPr (Wireless Internet Service Provider Roaming) 96
3.4.6 MSAP (Mobility Services Advertisement Protocol) 97
3.4.7 WiFi Direct 97
3.5 Small Cell and Mobile Core Offloading Technologies 98
3.5.1 LIPA (Local IP Access) 98
3.5.1.1 Is LIPA Specifically for Small Cells? 98
3.5.1.2 Use Case Example: Local Network Multimedia Access 98
3.5.2 SIPTO (Selected IP Traffic Offload) 99
3.5.2.1 Use Case Example: Core Network Offload 99
3.5.2.2 The Downside: Is SIPTO Suitable for All Traffic Profiles? 99
3.5.3 IFOM (IP Flow Mobility and Seamless Offload) 100
3.5.3.1 Enabling Seamless Integration between WiFi and 3GPP RANs 100
3.6 WiFi and Cellular RAN Integration: Commercial Implementations to Address the HetNet Challenge 101
3.6.1 WiFi Integration into Macrocell and Small Cell Base Station Nodes 101
3.6.2 Policy Driven Control for Small Cell & WiFi 101
3.6.2.1 Vendor Demonstrations: Dynamic Switching between WiFi and LTE 101
3.6.3 Commercial Case Study: NGH SIM-based WiFi Access 102

4 Chapter 4: Industry Roadmap and Value Chain 103
4.1 HetNet Industry Roadmap: 2010 – 2020 103
4.1.1 2010 – 2012: Initial Rollouts: In-building Voice Converge & Nomadic Data Access 103
4.1.2 2013 – 2015: The 4G Expansion Era – Capacity Upgrades with Small Cells & WiFi 104
4.1.3 2016 – 2020: The C-RAN Era – Large-scale Proliferation of C-RAN Networking Gear 104
4.2 HetNet Value Chain 106
4.3 Embedded Technology Ecosystem 106
4.3.1 Chipset Developers 106
4.3.2 Embedded Component/Software Providers 106
4.4 RAN Ecosystem 108
4.4.1 Macrocell RAN OEMs 108
4.4.2 Pure-Play and Specialist Small Cell OEMs 108
4.4.3 WiFi Access Point OEMs 108
4.4.4 DAS & Repeater Solution Providers 108
4.4.5 C-RAN Solution Providers 109
4.4.6 Other Technology & Network Component Providers/Enablers 109
4.5 Mobile Backhaul & Fronthaul Ecosystem 109
4.5.1 Backhaul & Fronthaul Solution Providers 109
4.6 Mobile Core Ecosystem 109
4.6.1 Core Network Infrastructure & Software Providers 109
4.7 Connectivity Ecosystem 110
4.7.1 2G, 3G & 4G Wireless Carriers 110
4.7.2 WiFi Connectivity Providers 112
4.7.3 SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service) Providers 112
4.8 SON Ecosystem 112
4.8.1 SON Solution Providers 112
4.9 SDN & NFV Ecosystem 112
4.9.1 SDN & NFV Providers 112
4.10 Vendor Landscape: Consolidation & Acquisitions Lead the Way 113
4.10.1 Broadcom Acquires Percello – Q4’2010 113
4.10.2 Radisys Acquires Continuous Computing – Q4’2010 113
4.10.3 Alvarion Acquires Wavion – Q4’2011 113
4.10.4 Mindspeed Technologies Acquires picoChip – Q1’2012 114
4.10.5 Ericsson Acquires BelAir Networks – Q2’2012 114
4.10.6 Crown Castle Acquires NextG Networks – Q2’2012 114
4.10.7 Qualcomm Acquires DesignArt Networks – Q3’2012 114
4.10.8 Oracle Acquires Acme Packet – Q1’2013 115
4.10.9 Oracle Acquires Tekelec – Q1’2013 115
4.10.10 Cisco Acquires Ubiquisys – Q2’2013 115
4.10.11 Cobham Acquires Axell Wireless– Q2’2013 116
4.10.12 Bird Technologies Acquires DeltaNode – Q3’2013 116
4.10.13 Intel Acquires Mindspeed’s Wireless Assets – Q4’2013 116
4.10.14 Intel Acquires LSI’s Axxia Networking Business – Q3’2014 116
4.10.15 Nokia Acquires Panasonic’s Wireless Infrastructure Assets – Q1’2015 116
4.10.16 Brocade Acquires Connectem – Q1’2015 117
4.10.17 Fastback Networks Acquires Sub10 Systems – Q1’2015 117
4.10.18 CommAgility Acquires MIMOon – Q1’2015 117
4.10.19 CommScope Announces Plans to Acquire TE Connectivity – Q1’2015 117
4.10.20 Nokia Announces Intention to Acquire Alcatel-Lucent – Q2’2015 117

5 Chapter 5: HetNet Deployment Models 118
5.1 Small Cell, C-RAN & DAS Deployment Models 118
5.1.1 Consumer (Indoor) Deployment Models 118
5.1.1.1 Home/Residential 118
5.1.1.2 Enterprise 118
5.1.2 Carrier Deployment Models 119
5.1.2.1 Indoor 119
5.1.2.2 Metro 119
5.1.2.3 Rural 119
5.1.3 SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service) 121
5.2 Carrier WiFi Deployment Models 122
5.2.1 Mobile Offload 122
5.2.2 SIM Based 122
5.2.3 Enterprise 122
5.2.4 Hotspot 122
5.2.5 Wholesale 122
5.2.6 Municipal WiFi 123

6 Chapter 6: Vertical Markets for HetNets 124
6.1 Residential 124
6.2 Healthcare 124
6.3 Higher Education 124
6.4 Large Enterprises 125
6.5 SMBs 125
6.6 Retail 125
6.7 Construction 125
6.8 Public Sector 126
6.9 Public Safety and Defense 126

7 Chapter 7: HetNet Backhaul & Fronthaul 127
7.1 Small Cell Backhaul Technology 127
7.1.1 Ethernet over Copper 127
7.1.2 Ethernet over Fiber 127
7.1.3 DSL 127
7.1.4 NLOS (Non-Line of Site) Microwave 128
7.1.5 PTP (Point to Point) Microwave – 6-60 GHz 128
7.1.6 PTMP (Point to Multipoint) Microwave – 6-60 GHz 128
7.1.7 Millimeter Wave (E-band) – Licensed and Unlicensed 128
7.1.8 Satellite Based Backhaul 128
7.2 C-RAN Fronthaul Technology 129
7.2.1 Dedicated Fiber (Dark Fiber) 129
7.2.2 WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) 129
7.2.3 PON (Passive Optical Network) 130
7.2.4 OTN (Optical Transport Network) 130
7.2.5 Ethernet 130
7.2.6 Microwave 130
7.2.7 Millimeter Wave (E-band) – Licensed and Unlicensed 131
7.3 Requirements for HetNet Backhaul & Fronthaul 131
7.3.1 Form Factor & Environmental Hardening 131
7.3.2 Power Supply & Consumption 131
7.3.3 Installation & Provisioning 131
7.3.4 Integration of OAM and SON Capabilities 132
7.3.5 Deployment & Maintenance Cost 132
7.4 Key Issues 132
7.4.1 Backhaul Sharing: Can Small Cells and Macrocells Share Resources? 132
7.4.2 Coverage Challenges 133
7.4.3 Capacity/Peak Throughput Challenges 133
7.4.4 Will Millimeter Wave be the Preferred Outdoor Small Cell Backhaul Solution? 133
7.4.5 Is Fronthaul the Bottleneck to C-RAN Rollouts? 134
7.4.6 Is Ethernet a Feasible Solution for C-RAN Fronthaul? 134
7.4.7 Is there a Market for Satellite based HetNet Transport? 134
7.4.8 Assessing the Impact of the SCaaS Ecosystem 135

8 Chapter 8: Standardization & Regulatory Initiatives 136
8.1 Small Cell Forum 136
8.1.1 Mission 136
8.1.2 Scope of Work 136
8.1.3 Working Groups 137
8.1.3.1 Marketing Group 138
8.1.3.2 Radio & Physical Layer Group 138
8.1.3.3 Network Group 138
8.1.3.4 Regulatory Group 139
8.1.3.5 Services Group 139
8.1.3.6 Interoperability Group 139
8.1.3.7 Deployment Group 139
8.1.3.8 Special Interest & Study Groups 140
8.2 WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance) 140
8.2.1 Mission 140
8.2.2 Scope of Work 140
8.2.3 Working Groups 141
8.2.3.1 Business Workgroup 141
8.2.3.2 Industry Engagement Workgroup 141
8.2.3.3 Roaming Workgroup 141
8.3 WiFi Alliance 142
8.3.1 Mission 142
8.3.2 Certification Programs 142
8.3.2.1 Core Certification 142
8.3.2.2 Miracast 143
8.3.2.3 TDLS (Tunneled Direct Link Setup ) 143
8.3.2.4 Passpoint 143
8.3.2.5 WiFi Direct 144
8.3.2.6 WiFi Protected Setup 144
8.3.2.7 WMM (WiFi Multimedia) 144
8.3.2.8 WMM-Power Save 144
8.3.2.9 Voice-Personal: Voice over WiFi 144
8.3.2.10 Voice-Enterprise: Voice over WiFi 145
8.3.2.11 CWG-RF 145
8.3.2.12 WMM-Admission Control 145
8.3.2.13 IBSS with WiFi Protected Setup 145
8.4 HetNet Forum 146
8.4.1 Mission 146
8.4.2 Scope of Work 146
8.4.3 Governance & Membership 146
8.5 ETSI 147
8.5.1 Mission 147
8.5.2 HetNet Standardization Activities 147
8.6 3GPP 148
8.6.1 Mission 148
8.6.2 HetNet Standardization Activities 148
8.7 3GPP2 150
8.7.1 Mission 150
8.7.2 HetNet Standardization Activities 150
8.8 NGMN Alliance 151
8.8.1 Mission 151
8.8.2 HetNet Initiatives 151
8.9 Broadband Forum 152
8.9.1 Mission 152
8.9.2 HetNet Standardization Activities 152
8.10 WiMAX Forum 153
8.10.1 Mission 153
8.10.2 HetNet Standardization Activities 153
8.11 Prominent Collaborations 155
8.11.1 WBA and WiFi Alliance 155
8.11.2 Small Cell Forum and GSMA 155
8.11.3 WBA, GSMA and Small Cell Forum 155
8.11.3.1 Integrating on a Network Level 156
8.11.3.2 Setting the Stage for Advanced Traffic Management 156

9 Chapter 9: HetNet Deployments 157
9.1 SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service) Case Studies 157
9.1.1 BT 157
9.1.2 Cellcom 157
9.1.3 Colt Telecom 158
9.1.4 Cloudberry Mobile 158
9.1.5 ClearSky 158
9.1.6 Virgin Media 158
9.1.7 Ericsson & Phillips 159
9.1.8 Alcatel-Lucent & Towerstream 159
9.2 Carrier WiFi 160
9.2.1 AT&T Mobility 160
9.2.2 Comcast 160
9.2.3 Cox Communications 160
9.2.4 MetroPCS 161
9.2.5 Sprint 161
9.2.6 T-Mobile USA 161
9.2.7 Verizon Wireless 162
9.2.8 Free Mobile 162
9.2.9 BT 162
9.2.10 MegaFon 162
9.2.11 Orange  163
9.2.12 Portugal Telecom 163
9.2.13 Telefónica (Spain) 163
9.2.14 T-Mobile Austria 163
9.2.15 Zain Saudi Arabia 163
9.2.16 China Mobile 164
9.2.17 KDDI 164
9.2.18 LG Uplus 164
9.2.19 NTT Broadband Platform 164
9.2.20 TIM Brasil 164
9.2.21 Other Carriers 165
9.3 Small Cell, C-RAN, & DAS Deployments 165
9.3.1 AT&T Mobility 165
9.3.2 Beeline 165
9.3.3 Bouygues Telecom 166
9.3.4 China Mobile 166
9.3.5 China Unicom 166
9.3.6 Cosmote 166
9.3.7 EE 166
9.3.8 Free Mobile 167
9.3.9 KDDI 167
9.3.10 MegaFon 167
9.3.11 Moldtelecom 167
9.3.12 Mosaic Telecom 167
9.3.13 MTC 167
9.3.14 Movistar 168
9.3.15 Network Norway 168
9.3.16 NTT DoCoMo 168
9.3.17 O2 (Telefonica UK) 168
9.3.18 Optimus Portugal 168
9.3.19 Optus 169
9.3.20 Orange 169
9.3.21 Orange Romania 169
9.3.22 SFR 169
9.3.23 SingTel 169
9.3.24 SK Telecom 169
9.3.25 SoftBank 170
9.3.26 Sprint 170
9.3.27 StarHub 170
9.3.28 TOT Thailand 170
9.3.29 Three UK 170
9.3.30 Verizon Wireless 170
9.3.31 Vodafone Australia 171
9.3.32 Vodafone Czech Republic 171
9.3.33 Vodafone Germany 171
9.3.34 Vodafone Greece 171
9.3.35 Vodafone Hungary 171
9.3.36 Vodafone Ireland 171
9.3.37 Vodafone Italy 172
9.3.38 Vodafone Netherlands 172
9.3.39 Vodafone New Zealand 172
9.3.40 Vodafone Portugal 172
9.3.41 Vodafone Qatar 172
9.3.42 Vodafone Romania 172
9.3.43 Vodafone Spain 172
9.3.44 Vodafone UK 173
9.3.45 Zain Bahrain 173
9.3.46 Other Commitments 173
9.4 Case Studies 174
9.4.1 Capitalizing on Multiple HetNet Technologies: NTT DoCoMo 174
9.4.2 The Impact of LTE & Small Cells on Tier 2/3 Wireless Carriers 175
9.4.3 What is the TCO Impact of HetNet Deployments? 175

10 Chapter 10: Wireless Network Infrastructure Incumbents 177
10.1 Alcatel-Lucent 177
10.2 Cisco Systems 179
10.3 Ericsson 180
10.4 Fujitsu 182
10.5 Hitachi 183
10.6 Huawei 184
10.7 NEC Corporation 185
10.8 Nokia Networks 186
10.9 Samsung Electronics 187
10.10 ZTE 189

11 Chapter 11: Macrocell RAN, Small Cell, C-RAN & Mobile Core Specialists 190
11.1 Accelleran 190
11.2 Adax 191
11.3 ADB 192
11.4 Affirmed Networks 193
11.5 Airspan Networks 194
11.6 Airvana 195
11.7 Alpha Networks 196
11.8 Altiostar Networks 197
11.9 Arcadyan Technology Corporation 198
11.10 Argela 199
11.11 ARItel 200
11.12 Artemis Networks 201
11.13 Askey Computer Corporation 202
11.14 ASOCS 203
11.15 Athena Wireless Communications (Google) 204
11.16 Axxcelera Broadband Wireless (Moseley Associates) 205
11.17 Brocade Communications Systems 206
11.18 Casa Systems 207
11.19 CCI (Competitive Companies, Inc.) 208
11.20 Contela 209
11.21 Connectem (Brocade) 210
11.22 CS Corporation 211
11.23 Datang Mobile 212
11.24 Dongwon T&I 213
11.25 Femtel (Suzhou Femtel Communications) 214
11.26 Gemtek Technology Company 215
11.27 GENBAND 216
11.28 GWT (Global Wireless Technologies) 217
11.29 HP (Hewlett-Packard Company) 218
11.30 ip.access 219
11.31 Juni Global 220
11.32 Juniper Networks 221
11.33 Lemko 222
11.34 LGS Innovations 223
11.35 Mavenir (Mitel) 224
11.36 New Postcom Equipment Company 225
11.37 NewNet Communication Technologies 226
11.38 Nutaq 227
11.39 Oceus Networks 228
11.40 Panda Electronics (Nanjing Panda Electronics Company) 229
11.41 Parallel Wireless 230
11.42 Polaris Networks 231
11.43 Potevio (China Potevio Company) 232
11.44 Quanta Computer 233
11.45 Qucell 234
11.46 Quortus 235
11.47 Redline Communications 236
11.48 Sagemcom 237
11.49 Samji Electronics Company 238
11.50 SerComm Corporation 239
11.51 SK Telesys 240
11.52 SpiderCloud Wireless 241
11.53 Star Solutions 243
11.54 Sunnada (Fujian Sunnada Communication Company) 244
11.55 Taqua 245
11.56 Tecom 246
11.57 TEKTELIC Communications 247
11.58 Telum 248
11.59 Telrad Networks 249
11.60 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation) 250
11.61 Z-Com (ZDC Wireless) 251

12 Chapter 12: Antenna, DAS & Repeater Solution Specialists 252
12.1 AceAxis 252
12.2 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies) 252
12.3 Affarii Technologies 253
12.4 American Tower Corporation 253
12.5 Arqiva 254
12.6 Axis Teknologies 254
12.7 Black Box Corporation 255
12.8 BTI Wireless 256
12.9 CCI (Communication Components Inc.) 257
12.10 CCI (Crown Castle International) 258
12.11 CCI Systems 259
12.12 Cobham Wireless 260
12.13 Comba Telecom Systems Holdings 261
12.14 CommScope 262
12.15 Corning 263
12.16 Dali Wireless 264
12.17 DeltaNode (Bird Technologies) 265
12.18 Ethertronics 266
12.19 ExteNet Systems 267
12.20 Foxcom 268
12.21 Galtronics 268
12.22 Goodman Networks 269
12.23 GrenTech (China GrenTech Corporation) 270
12.24 JRC (Japan Radio Company) 271
12.25 JMA Wireless 272
12.26 Kisan Telecom 273
12.27 KMW 273
12.28 Kathrein-Werke KG 274
12.29 MER-CellO Wireless Solutions 275
12.30 Microlab (Wireless Telecom Group) 276
12.31 MTI Mobile 277
12.32 Nexius 278
12.33 Nextivity 279
12.34 RF Window 280
12.35 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems) 281
12.36 Rosenberger 282
12.37 SOLiD (SOLiD Technologies) 283
12.38 Sumitomo Electric Industries 284
12.39 TESSCO Technologies 285
12.40 Westell Technologies 286
12.41 Zinwave 287

13 Chapter 13: Carrier WiFi Specialists 288
13.1 4ipnet 288
13.2 ABB 289
13.3 Accuris Networks 290
13.4 Aerohive Networks 291
13.5 Alvarion Technologies 292
13.6 Aptilo Networks 293
13.7 Aruba Networks 294
13.8 Autelan 295
13.9 BandwidthX 296
13.10 Birdstep Technology 297
13.11 Browan Communications 298
13.12 BSG Wireless 299
13.13 D-Link Corporation 300
13.14 Edgewater Wireless Systems 301
13.15 EION Wireless 302
13.16 Firetide 303
13.17 Fortinet 304
13.18 Front Porch 305
13.19 GoNet Systems 306
13.20 Handlink Technologies 307
13.21 Meru Networks 308
13.22 Netgem 309
13.23 NETGEAR 310
13.24 Nomadix 311
13.25 Panasonic Corporation 312
13.26 Ro-Timak Technology 313
13.27 Ruckus Wireless 314
13.28 Senao Networks 315
13.29 Smith Micro Software 316
13.30 SpectrumMax 317
13.31 Syniverse Technologies 318
13.32 TP-LINK Technologies 319
13.33 Tranzeo Wireless Technologies 320
13.34 Ubiquiti Networks 321
13.35 WeFi 322
13.36 Zebra Technologies Corporation 323
13.37 ZyXEL 324

14 Chapter 14: Enabling Technology Providers 325
14.1 6WIND 325
14.2 Ablaze Wireless 326
14.3 Accelink Technologies 327
14.4 ADLINK Technology 328
14.5 ADI (Analog Devices Inc.) 329
14.6 AirHop Communications 330
14.7 AKM (Asahi Kasei Microdevices) 331
14.8 Allot Communications 332
14.9 Altera Corporation 333
14.10 Amarisoft 334
14.11 Amdocs 335
14.12 Anite 336
14.13 Anritsu Corporation 337
14.14 Aricent 337
14.15 ARM Holdings 339
14.16 Astellia 340
14.17 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) 341
14.18 Avago Technologies 342
14.19 Azcom Technology 343
14.20 Benetel 344
14.21 Blu Wireless Technology 345
14.22 Broadcom 346
14.23 Cadence Design Systems 347
14.24 Cavium 348
14.25 CeedTec 349
14.26 Cellwize 350
14.27 Celtro 351
14.28 Coherent Logix 352
14.29 Comcores ApS 353
14.30 CommAgility 354
14.31 ConteXtream 355
14.32 Cyan 356
14.33 D2 Technologies 357
14.34 Dell 358
14.35 Direct Beam 359
14.36 eASIC Corporation 360
14.37 Eden Rock Communications (Nokia) 361
14.38 EDX Wireless 362
14.39 Eoptolink Technology 363
14.40 ERCOM 364
14.41 EXFO 365
14.42 EZchip Semiconductor 366
14.43 Federated Wireless 367
14.44 Faraday Technology Corporation 368
14.45 Finisar Corporation 369
14.46 GigaLight (Shenzhen Gigalight Technology Company) 370
14.47 GlobalFoundaries 371
14.48 Hisense (Hisense Broadband Multimedia Technology) 372
14.49 HG Genuine 373
14.50 IMEC International 374
14.51 InfoVista 375
14.52 InnoLight Technology Corporation 376
14.53 Intel Corporation 377
14.54 InterDigital 379
14.55 iPosi 380
14.56 Ixia 381
14.57 JDSU (JDS Uniphase Corporation) 382
14.58 Keysight Technologies 383
14.59 Kumu Networks 384
14.60 Lattice Semiconductor 385
14.61 Lime Microsystems 386
14.62 Macom (M/A-COM Technology Solutions) 387
14.63 Maxim Integrated 388
14.64 Microsemi Corporation 389
14.65 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation 390
14.66 Mobiveil 391
14.67 Molex 392
14.68 Nash Technologies 393
14.69 Node-H 394
14.70 Nomor Research 395
14.71 NXP Semiconductors 396
14.72 OE Solutions 397
14.73 Octasic 398
14.74 Optulink 399
14.75 P.I. Works 400
14.76 Pletronics 401
14.77 PMC-Sierra 402
14.78 Procera Networks 403
14.79 Public Wireless 404
14.80 Qualcomm 405
14.81 Qulsar 406
14.82 QEOS 407
14.83 Qwilt 408
14.84 RADCOM 409
14.85 Radisys Corporation 410
14.86 Rakon 411
14.87 Red Hat 412
14.88 Reverb Networks 413
14.89 RF DSP 414
14.90 Saguna Networks 415
14.91 SAI Technology 416
14.92 Sistelbanda 417
14.93 Source Photonics 418
14.94 Tata Elxsi 419
14.95 TEOCO Corporation 420
14.96 TI (Texas Instruments) 421
14.97 Tulinx 422
14.98 U-blox 423
14.99 Vectron International 424
14.100 VPIsystems 425
14.101 WiPro 426
14.102 XCellAir 427
14.103 Xelic 428
14.104 Xilinx 429

15 Chapter 15: Mobile Backhaul & Fronthaul Vendors 430
15.1 3Roam 430
15.2 4RF 430
15.3 Accedian Networks 431
15.4 Actelis Networks 432
15.5 Actiontec 432
15.6 Actus Networks 432
15.7 ADTRAN 433
15.8 ADVA Optical Networking 434
15.9 Advantech Wireless 434
15.10 ALAXALA Networks 434
15.11 Albis Technologies 435
15.12 ALCOMA 435
15.13 Allied Data Technologies 435
15.14 Allied Telesis 436
15.15 Aquantia 436
15.16 Arris 437
15.17 Avanti Communications 437
15.18 Aviat Networks 438
15.19 AVM 439
15.20 BLiNQ Networks 439
15.21 BluWan 440
15.22 BridgeWave Communications 441
15.23 BTI Systems 442
15.24 CableFree Solutions 442
15.25 Calix 442
15.26 Cambium Networks 443
15.27 Canoga Perkins 444
15.28 Carlson Wireless Technologies 444
15.29 CBNL (Cambridge Broadband Networks Ltd.) 445
15.30 CCS (Cambridge Communication Systems) 446
15.31 Ceragon 447
15.32 Cielo Networks 448
15.33 Ciena Corporation 448
15.34 Comtrend 448
15.35 Corecess 449
15.36 DASAN Networks 449
15.37 DragonWave 450
15.38 E-Band Communications (Moseley Associates) 451
15.39 E-Blink 452
15.40 ECI Telecom 453
15.41 Elva-1 453
15.42 Exalt Communications 454
15.43 Extreme Networks 455
15.44 FastBack Networks 456
15.45 Fiberhome Technologies 457
15.46 FibroLan 457
15.47 Genmix Technology 458
15.48 Gilat Satellite Networks 458
15.49 HFR 459
15.50 Huahuan 459
15.51 Hughes Network Systems 460
15.52 HXI 460
15.53 iDirect 461
15.54 Intracom Telecom 462
15.55 IPITEK 463
15.56 Iskratel 463
15.57 KEYMILE 463
15.58 LightPointe Communications 464
15.59 Loea Corporation 465
15.60 MAX4G 465
15.61 Microwave Networks 466
15.62 MIMOtech 467
15.63 MRV Communications 468
15.64 Nexcomm Systems 468
15.65 NexxComm Wireless 468
15.66 Omnitron Systems 469
15.67 OneAccess Networks 469
15.68 Overture Networks 469
15.69 Polewall 470
15.70 Positron 470
15.71 Proxim Wireless Corporation 471
15.72 RACOM 472
15.73 RAD Data Communications 472
15.74 RADWIN 473
15.75 SAF Tehnika 474
15.76 SIAE Microelectronics (SIAE Microelectronica) 474
15.77 Siklu 475
15.78 SkyFiber 476
15.79 SMC Networks 476
15.80 Solectek 476
15.81 Star Microwave 477
15.82 Tarana Wireless 477
15.83 Telco Systems 478
15.84 Tellabs 478
15.85 Tellion 479
15.86 Tellumat 479
15.87 Telsey 479
15.88 Tilgin 480
15.89 Trango Systems 480
15.90 Transmode 480
15.91 Ubiquoss 481
15.92 UTStarcom 481
15.93 Vubiq Networks 481
15.94 Wave1 482
15.95 Wavesight 482
15.96 Xavi Technologies 482
15.97 Yamaha Corporation 483
15.98 Zhone Technologies 483

16 Chapter 16: Market Analysis and Forecasts 484
16.1 The Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Market: 2015 – 2020 484
16.1.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base 484
16.1.1.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base Compared 485
16.1.1.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region 485
16.1.2 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue 486
16.1.2.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue Compared 487
16.1.2.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region 488
16.1.3 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue 489
16.1.3.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue Compared 489
16.1.3.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue by Region 490
16.2 The Global Small Cell Market: 2015 – 2020 491
16.2.1 Global Throughput of Small Cell Data Traffic 491
16.2.2 Global Small Cell Installed Base 491
16.2.3 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro) 492
16.2.3.1 Global Femtocell Installed Base 492
16.2.3.2 Global Picocell Installed Base 493
16.2.3.3 Global Microcell Installed Base 493
16.2.4 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural) 494
16.2.4.1 Home/Residential Small Cell Installed Base 495
16.2.4.2 Enterprise Small Cell Installed Base 495
16.2.4.3 Metro Small Cell Installed Base 496
16.2.4.4 Rural Small Cell Installed Base 496
16.2.5 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G) 497
16.2.5.1 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Installed Base 498
16.2.5.2 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Installed Base 498
16.2.6 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX) 499
16.2.6.1 GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Installed Base 499
16.2.6.2 CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Installed Base 500
16.2.6.3 LTE FDD Small Cell Installed Base 500
16.2.6.4 TD-LTE Small Cell Installed Base 501
16.2.6.5 WiMAX Small Cell Installed Base 501
16.2.7 Small Cell Installed Base by Region 502
16.2.8 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 502
16.2.9 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro) 504
16.2.9.1 Global Femtocell Unit Shipments & Revenue 505
16.2.9.2 Global Picocell Unit Shipments & Revenue 506
16.2.9.3 Global Microcell Unit Shipments & Revenue 507
16.2.10 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural) 508
16.2.10.1 Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 509
16.2.10.2 Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 510
16.2.10.3 Metro Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 511
16.2.10.4 Rural Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 512
16.2.11 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G) 513
16.2.11.1 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 514
16.2.11.2 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 515
16.2.12 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX) 516
16.2.12.1 GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipments &  Revenue 517
16.2.12.2 CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 518
16.2.12.3 LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 519
16.2.12.4 TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 520
16.2.12.5 WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 521
16.2.13 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region 522
16.2.14 Global Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue 523
16.2.15 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region 523
16.3 The Global Carrier WiFi Market: 2015 – 2020 524
16.3.1 Global Throughput of Carrier WiFi Data Traffic 524
16.3.2 Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base 524
16.3.3 Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers) 525
16.3.3.1 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base 525
16.3.3.2 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Installed Base 526
16.3.4 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi) 526
16.3.4.1 Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Installed Base 527
16.3.4.2 Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Installed Base 527
16.3.5 Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region 528
16.3.6 Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue 529
16.3.7 Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers) 530
16.3.7.1 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue 531
16.3.7.2 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments & Revenue 532
16.3.8 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi) 533
16.3.8.1 Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue 534
16.3.8.2 Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue 535
16.3.9 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region 536
16.3.10 Global Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue 537
16.3.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region 537
16.4 The Global C-RAN Market: 2015 – 2020 538
16.4.1 Global Throughput of C-RAN & Macrocell Data Traffic 538
16.4.2 Global C-RAN Infrastructure Spending 538
16.4.3 Submarket Segmentation 539
16.4.4 RRH (Remote Radio Head) Unit Shipments & Revenue 540
16.4.5 C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 541
16.4.6 C-RAN BBU (Baseband Unit) Revenue 542
16.4.7 Mobile Fronthaul Revenue 542
16.4.8 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending by Region 543
16.5 The Global DAS Market: 2015 – 2020 544
16.5.1 Global Throughput of DAS Data Traffic 544
16.5.2 Global DAS Node Unit Shipments & Revenue 544
16.5.3 Indoor vs. Outdoor Segmentation 545
16.5.4 Indoor DAS Node Unit Shipments & Revenue 547
16.5.5 Outdoor DAS Node Unit Shipments & Revenue 548
16.5.6 DAS Node Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region 549
16.6 The Global Small Cell Backhaul Market: 2015 – 2020 550
16.6.1 Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 550
16.6.2 Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology 551
16.6.2.1 Ethernet over Copper 552
16.6.2.2 Ethernet over Fiber 552
16.6.2.3 DSL Modems and DSLAMs 553
16.6.2.4 NLOS Microwave (Below 6 GHz) 553
16.6.2.5 PTP Microwave (6-60 GHz) 554
16.6.2.6 PTMP Microwave (6-60 GHz) 554
16.6.2.7 Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60 GHz) 555
16.6.2.8 Millimeter Wave (Licensed 71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz) 555
16.6.2.9 Satellite 556
16.6.3 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Region 556
16.7 The Global C-RAN Fronthaul Market: 2015 – 2020 557
16.7.1 Global C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending 557
16.7.2 Global C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology 557
16.7.2.1 Dedicated Fiber 558
16.7.2.2 WDM 558
16.7.2.3 OTN & PON 559
16.7.2.4 Ethernet 559
16.7.2.5 Microwave 560
16.7.2.6 Millimeter Wave 560
16.7.3 C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending by Region 561
16.8 The Global SON Market: 2015 – 2020 562
16.8.1 Global SON Solution Spending 562
16.8.2 SON Solution Spending by Region 562
16.9 The Global SCaaS Market: 2015 – 2020 563
16.9.1 Global SCaaS Revenue 563
16.9.2 SCaaS Revenue by Region 563
16.10 The Global Mobile Network Data Service Market: 2015 – 2020 564
16.10.1 Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 564
16.10.2 Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Access Network Type (Macrocell, C-RAN, Small Cell, Carrier WiFi, DAS) 564
16.10.2.1 Macrocell & C-RAN based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 565
16.10.2.2 Small Cell based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 565
16.10.2.3 Carrier WiFi based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 566
16.10.2.4 DAS based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 566
16.10.3 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Region 567
16.11 North America Market: 2015 – 2020 568
16.11.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in North America 568
16.11.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in North America 568
16.11.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America 569
16.11.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 569
16.11.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in North America 570
16.11.6 Small Cell Installed Base in North America 571
16.11.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 571
16.11.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America 572
16.11.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America 573
16.11.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 573
16.11.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America 574
16.11.12 C-RAN Revenue in North America 575
16.11.13 RRH Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 575
16.11.14 C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 576
16.11.15 C-RAN BBU Revenue in North America 577
16.11.16 DAS Node Shipments & Revenue in North America 578
16.11.17 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in North America 579
16.11.18 C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending in North America 579
16.11.19 SON Solution Spending in North America 580
16.11.20 SCaaS Revenue in North America 580
16.12 Asia Pacific Market: 2015 – 2020 581
16.12.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Asia Pacific 581
16.12.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 581
16.12.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific 582
16.12.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 582
16.12.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 583
16.12.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Asia Pacific 584
16.12.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 584
16.12.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 585
16.12.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific 586
16.12.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 586
16.12.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 587
16.12.12 C-RAN Revenue in Asia Pacific 588
16.12.13 RRH Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 588
16.12.14 C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 589
16.12.15 C-RAN BBU Revenue in Asia Pacific 590
16.12.16 DAS Node Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 591
16.12.17 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific 592
16.12.18 C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific 592
16.12.19 SON Solution Spending in Asia Pacific 593
16.12.20 SCaaS Revenue in Asia Pacific 593
16.13 Western Europe Market: 2015 – 2020 594
16.13.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Western Europe 594
16.13.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 594
16.13.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe 595
16.13.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 595
16.13.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 596
16.13.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Western Europe 597
16.13.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 597
16.13.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 598
16.13.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe 599
16.13.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 599
16.13.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 600
16.13.12 C-RAN Revenue in Western Europe 601
16.13.13 RRH Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 601
16.13.14 C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 602
16.13.15 C-RAN BBU Revenue in Western Europe 603
16.13.16 DAS Node Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 604
16.13.17 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe 605
16.13.18 C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe 605
16.13.19 SON Solution Spending in Western Europe 606
16.13.20 SCaaS Revenue in Western Europe 606
16.14 Eastern Europe Market: 2015 – 2020 607
16.14.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Eastern Europe 607
16.14.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 607
16.14.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe 608
16.14.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 608
16.14.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 609
16.14.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Eastern Europe 610
16.14.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 610
16.14.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 611
16.14.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe 612
16.14.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 612
16.14.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 613
16.14.12 C-RAN Revenue in Eastern Europe 614
16.14.13 RRH Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 614
16.14.14 C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 615
16.14.15 C-RAN BBU Revenue in Eastern Europe 616
16.14.16 DAS Node Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 617
16.14.17 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe 618
16.14.18 C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe 618
16.14.19 SON Solution Spending in Eastern Europe 619
16.14.20 SCaaS Revenue in Eastern Europe 619
16.15 Middle East & Africa Market: 2015 – 2020 620
16.15.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Middle East & Africa 620
16.15.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 620
16.15.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa 621
16.15.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 621
16.15.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 622
16.15.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Middle East & Africa 623
16.15.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 623
16.15.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 624
16.15.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa 625
16.15.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 625
16.15.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 626
16.15.12 C-RAN Revenue in Middle East & Africa 627
16.15.13 RRH Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 627
16.15.14 C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 628
16.15.15 C-RAN BBU Revenue in Middle East & Africa 629
16.15.16 DAS Node Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 630
16.15.17 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa 631
16.15.18 C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa 631
16.15.19 SON Solution Spending in Middle East & Africa 632
16.15.20 SCaaS Revenue in Middle East & Africa 632
16.16 Latin & Central America Market: 2015 – 2020 633
16.16.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Latin & Central America 633
16.16.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 633
16.16.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America 634
16.16.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 634
16.16.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 635
16.16.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Latin & Central America 636
16.16.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 636
16.16.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 637
16.16.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America 638
16.16.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 638
16.16.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 639
16.16.12 C-RAN Revenue in Latin & Central America 640
16.16.13 RRH Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 640
16.16.14 C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 641
16.16.15 C-RAN BBU Revenue in Latin & Central America 642
16.16.16 DAS Node Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 643
16.16.17 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America 644
16.16.18 C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America 644
16.16.19 SON Solution Spending in Latin & Central America 645
16.16.20 SCaaS Revenue in Latin & Central America 645

17 Chapter 17: Conclusion and Strategic Recommendations 646
17.1 Small Cells, WiFi, C-RAN or DAS: Which Implementation will lead HetNet Deployments? 646
17.2 The Formula for Success: Selecting the Right Combination of HetNet Technologies 647
17.3 SON Integration is Key 647
17.4 Offloading with TD-LTE Small Cells 648
17.5 LTE-U: The Emergence of Unlicensed Small Cells 649
17.5.1 Commercial Prospects: How Big is the Opportunity? 649
17.5.2 Wireless Carrier Commitments 651
17.5.3 WiFi Community Concerns 651
17.6 Are C-RAN Deployments Gaining Traction? 652
17.7 What are the Prospects for Virtualized RAN Architectures? 653
17.8 Distributing Baseband Intelligence: Towards C-RAN Small Cells 654
17.9 Accelerating the Transition to Military, Tactical & Public Safety LTE Networks 655
17.10 Standardization Driving RAN & Carrier WiFi Integration 658
17.11 Prospects of Enterprise RAN Deployments 659
17.12 Network Visibility & OAM 660
17.13 Addressing Network Security: IPsec 660
17.14 Market Share: Rise of the Non-Macro Vendors 661
17.14.1 Small Cell 661
17.14.2 Carrier WiFi 661
17.14.3 C-RAN 662
17.14.4 DAS 663
17.15 The Opportunity for Small Cells in Emerging Rural Markets 664
17.16 Strategic Recommendations 665
17.16.1 Recommendations for HetNet Solution Vendors 665
17.16.2 Recommendations for Wireless Carriers 665
17.16.3 Recommendations for Macrocell Infrastructure Vendors 666
17.16.4 Recommendations for Backhaul & Fronthaul Solution Providers 666

List of Figures  

Figure 1: Global LTE Subscriptions by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Millions) 62
Figure 2: HetNet Architecture 63
Figure 3: Small Cell Coverage Range Comparison 65
Figure 4: Small Cell Characteristics & Comparison to Macrocells 66
Figure 5: Mobile Network Data Offloading via WiFi 69
Figure 6: C-RAN Architecture 72
Figure 7: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 78
Figure 8: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Access Network Type (Macrocell, C-RAN, Small Cells, Carrier WiFi, DAS): 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 79
Figure 9: Global DAS Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 82
Figure 10: Iuh based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network 87
Figure 11: Iub based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network 88
Figure 12: S1 Interface based Small Cell Integration in an LTE Network 89
Figure 13: HetNet Industry Roadmap: 2010 – 2020 103
Figure 14: Annual Global Throughput of Small Cells and Carrier WiFi Data Networks: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 105
Figure 15: The HetNet Value Chain 107
Figure 16: List of LTE Trials & Deployments 111
Figure 17: SCaaS Provider and Wireless Carrier Responsibilities in a SCaaS Offering 121
Figure 18: Small Cell Forum’s Scope 137
Figure 19: Small Cell Forum Working Groups 138
Figure 20: NTT DoCoMo’s Advanced C-RAN Architecture 174
Figure 21: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units) 484
Figure 22: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base Compared: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 485
Figure 23: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 485
Figure 24: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units) 486
Figure 25: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 486
Figure 26: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments Compared: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 487
Figure 27: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue Compared: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 487
Figure 28: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 488
Figure 29: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 488
Figure 30: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 489
Figure 31: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 489
Figure 32: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 490
Figure 33: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over Small Cells: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 491
Figure 34: Global Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 491
Figure 35: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 492
Figure 36: Global Femtocell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 492
Figure 37: Global Picocell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 493
Figure 38: Global Microcell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 493
Figure 39: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 494
Figure 40: Home/Residential Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 495
Figure 41: Enterprise Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 495
Figure 42: Metro Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 496
Figure 43: Rural Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 496
Figure 44: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 497
Figure 45: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM-WCDMA) Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 498
Figure 46: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 498
Figure 47: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 499
Figure 48: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 499
Figure 49: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 500
Figure 50: LTE FDD Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 500
Figure 51: TD-LTE Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 501
Figure 52: WiMAX Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 501
Figure 53: Small Cell Installed Base by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 502
Figure 54: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units) 502
Figure 55: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 503
Figure 56: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units) 504
Figure 57: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 504
Figure 58: Global Femtocell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units) 505
Figure 59: Global Femtocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 505
Figure 60: Global Picocell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units) 506
Figure 61: Global Picocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 506
Figure 62: Global Microcell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units) 507
Figure 63: Global Microcell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 507
Figure 64: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Deployment Model (Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 508
Figure 65: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Deployment Model (Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 508
Figure 66: Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 509
Figure 67: Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 509
Figure 68: Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 510
Figure 69: Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 510
Figure 70: Metro Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 511
Figure 71: Metro Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 511
Figure 72: Rural Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 512
Figure 73: Rural Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 512
Figure 74: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 513
Figure 75: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 513
Figure 76: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 514
Figure 77: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 514
Figure 78: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 515
Figure 79: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 515
Figure 80: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD, TD-LTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 516
Figure 81: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD, TD-LTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 516
Figure 82: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 517
Figure 83: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 517
Figure 84: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 518
Figure 85: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 518
Figure 86: LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 519
Figure 87: LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 519
Figure 88: TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 520
Figure 89: TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 520
Figure 90: WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 521
Figure 91: WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 521
Figure 92: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 522
Figure 93: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 522
Figure 94: Global Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 523
Figure 95: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 523
Figure 96: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over Carrier WiFi: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 524
Figure 97: Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 524
Figure 98: Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 525
Figure 99: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 525
Figure 100: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 526
Figure 101: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 526
Figure 102: Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 527
Figure 103: Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 527
Figure 104: Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 528
Figure 105: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 529
Figure 106: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 529
Figure 107: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 530
Figure 108: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 530
Figure 109: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 531
Figure 110: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 531
Figure 111: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 532
Figure 112: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 532
Figure 113: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 533
Figure 114: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 533
Figure 115: Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 534
Figure 116: Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 534
Figure 117: Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 535
Figure 118: Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 535
Figure 119: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 536
Figure 120: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 536
Figure 121: Global Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 537
Figure 122: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 537
Figure 123: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over C-RAN & Macrocell BBUs: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 538
Figure 124: Global C-RAN Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 538
Figure 125: Global C-RAN Infrastructure Spending by Submarket: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 539
Figure 126: Global RRH Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 540
Figure 127: Global RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 540
Figure 128: Global C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 541
Figure 129: Global C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 541
Figure 130: Global C-RAN BBU Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 542
Figure 131: Global Mobile Fronthaul Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 542
Figure 132: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 543
Figure 133: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over DAS: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 544
Figure 134: Global DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 544
Figure 135: Global DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 545
Figure 136: DAS Node Unit Shipments by Deployment Model: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 545
Figure 137: DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue by Deployment Model: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 546
Figure 138: Indoor DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 547
Figure 139: Indoor DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 547
Figure 140: Outdoor DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 548
Figure 141: Outdoor DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 548
Figure 142: DAS Node Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units) 549
Figure 143: DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 549
Figure 144: Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 550
Figure 145: Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 551
Figure 146: Ethernet over Copper Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 552
Figure 147: Ethernet over Fiber Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 552
Figure 148: DSL Modems and DSLAMs Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 553
Figure 149: NLOS Microwave (Below 6 GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 553
Figure 150: PTP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 554
Figure 151: PTMP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 554
Figure 152: Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 555
Figure 153: Millimeter Wave (Licensed 71-76GHz, 81-86GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 555
Figure 154: Satellite Based Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 556
Figure 155: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 556
Figure 156: Global C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 557
Figure 157: Global C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 557
Figure 158: Dedicated Fiber C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 558
Figure 159: WDM C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 558
Figure 160: OTN & PON C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 559
Figure 161: Ethernet C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 559
Figure 162: Microwave C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 560
Figure 163: Millimeter Wave C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 560
Figure 164: C-RAN Fronthaul Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 561
Figure 165: Global SON Solution Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 562
Figure 166: SON Solution Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 562
Figure 167: Global SCaaS Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 563
Figure 168: SCaaS Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 563
Figure 169: Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 564
Figure 170: Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Access Network Type (Macrocell, C-RAN, Small Cell, Carrier WiFi, DAS): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million) 564

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