WiFi Enabled LTE Small Cell Gateway Forecasts: 2013 – 2020 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies, Industry Verticals and Forecasts

Driven by infrastructure vendor commitments and demands from the wireless carrier community, Market Research expects the installed base of WiFi enabled LTE small cell gateways to account for nearly 15 Million units by 2020, growing at a CAGR of nearly 122% between 2013 and 2020.

Driven by large scale LTE investments and the high penetration of embedded WiFi capability in consumer electronic devices, both fixed and mobile, a number of wireless carriers are taking a keen interest in WiFi enabled LTE gateways. A WiFi enabled LTE small cell gateway (or base station) is an emerging network element, which has an LTE interface towards the carrier network and a WiFi interface towards the end user device. A vast majority of these base station deployments are likely to be in a small cell configuration.

Driven by infrastructure vendor commitments and demands from the wireless carrier community, Market Research expects the installed base of WiFi enabled LTE small cell gateways to account for nearly 15 Million units by 2020, growing at a CAGR of nearly 122% between 2013 and 2020.

The “WiFi Enabled LTE Small Cell Gateway Forecasts: 2013 – 2020” excel datasheet presents detailed forecasts and growth rate projections on the installed base, unit shipments and revenue of WiFi enabled LTE gateways from 2013 till 2020.

The forecasts are also segmented for the following regional submarkets:

  • Asia Pacific
  • Eastern Europe
  • Latin & Central America
  • Middle East & Africa
  • North America
  • Western Europe

The datasheet comes with a complimentary copy of SNS Research’s “The HetNet Bible (Small Cells and Carrier WiFi) Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies and Forecasts: 2013 2020 With an Evaluation of DAS & Cloud RAN” report which includes detailed analysis and forecasts of the HetNet market. The report comprises over 434 pages and 262 figures.

Topics Covered

  • The datasheet and the complimentary report cover the following topics:
  • Small cell, carrier WiFi, DAS, Cloud RAN, Mobile Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) & HetNet technology and architecture
  • WiFi enabled LTE small cell gateways
  • Integration and offloading technology for carrier WiFi and small cells
  • Market drivers and key benefits of small cells and carrier WiFi
  • Challenges and Inhibitors to the small cells and carrier WiFi ecosystem
  • Small cell and carrier WiFi industry roadmap: 2010 – 2020
  • Small cell and carrier WiFi value chain
  • Vendor landscape and acquisitions
  • Small cell and carrier WiFi deployment models
  • Vertical markets for small cell and carrier WiFi deployments
  • Small cell backhaul technology, requirements and key issues
  • Standardization and regulatory initiatives
  • Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS)
  • Small cells, SCaaS and carrier WiFi deployment case studies
  • Industry, wireless carrier and vendor commitments to small cells and carrier WiFi
  • Self-Organizing Network (SON) technology
  • Profiles and market positioning assessment (current strategy, target market and products/services) for the following players in the HetNet market: ‘Pure-Play’ and specialist small cell vendors, DAS & repeater solution providers, carrier WiFi focused vendors, Cloud RAN solution providers, HetNet focused SON solution providers, Wireless network (Macrocell, Core) infrastructure vendors, chipset, software & component vendors, technology providers, WiFi network providers and small cell backhaul solution providers.
  • Conclusion and strategic recommendations for HetNet solution vendors, wireless carriers and macrocell infrastructure vendors.
  • Market analysis and forecasts for the industry’s revenue, including the following submarkets:
  • Small Cells
  • WiFi enabled Small Cell Gateways
  • Carrier WiFi
  • Small Cell Backhaul
  • Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS)
  • Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS)
  • Cloud RAN
  • Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solutions
  • Mobile Network Data Service
  • Small cell forecasts (unit shipments, revenue, installed base) are categorized in the following categories:
  • RAN Technology
  • GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA
  • CDMA-2000/EV-DO
  • LTE FDD
  • TD-LTE
  • WiMAX
  • Deployment Model
  • Home/Residential
  • Enterprise
  • Metro
  • Rural
  • Cell Size
  • Femtocells
  • Picocells
  • Microcells
  • Carrier WiFi forecasts (unit shipments, revenue, installed base) are categorized in the following categories:
  • Equipment Category
  • Access Points
  • Access Point Controllers
  • Integration Approach
  • Managed WiFi Offload
  • Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi
  • Small cell backhaul forecasts (revenue) are categorized in the following technology categories:
  • Ethernet over Copper
  • Ethernet over Fiber
  • DSL modems and DSLAMs
  • Non Line of Sight (NLOS) Microwave (Sub-6GHz spectrum)
  • Point to Point (PTP) Microwave (6-60GHz)
  • Point to Multipoint (PTMP) Microwave (6-60GHz)
  • Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60GHz spectrum)
  • Millimeter Wave (Licensed 60GHz spectrum)
  • Satellite
  • Mobile network data service forecasts (throughput and revenue) are categorized in the following access network technology categories:
  • Macrocell Network
  • Small Cells
  • Carrier WiFi
  • DAS

Regional forecasts are categorized in the following 6 categories

  • North America
  • Asia Pacific
  • Western Europe
  • Eastern Europe
  • Middle East & Africa
  • Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered

  • The datasheet and the complimentary report provide answers to the following key questions:
  • What are the key market drivers and challenges in the small cells and carrier WiFi market and the wider HetNets ecosystem?
  • How big is the WiFi enabled small cell gateway market, and how much revenue will it generate in 2020?
  • How big is the HetNet ecosystem, and how much revenue will it generate in 2020?
  • What will be the installed base of small cells and carrier WiFi access points in 2020?
  • Which geographical regions offer the greatest growth potential for HetNet deployments?
  • What is the service revenue for mobile data services delivered over small cells and carrier WiFi, and how will this vary overtime?
  • How are investments on DAS technology impacting the small cells and carrier WiFi market?
  • What is the Cloud RAN concept, and how does it affect the small cells and carrier WiFi market?
  • Which technology will be predominant in the small cell backhaul ecosystem and is there a market for satellite based small cell backhaul?
  • Is there a market for rural small cell deployments?
  • How big is the opportunity for Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS)?
  • How is the HetNet value chain structured and how will it evolve overtime?
  • What opportunities does the HetNet ecosystem offer to infrastructure vendors and other players involved in the value chain?
  • What strategies should infrastructure vendors and wireless carriers adopt to capitalize on the HetNet opportunity?

Key Findings

The datasheet and the complimentary report have the following key findings:

  • The installed base of WiFi enabled LTE small cell gateways to account for nearly 15 Million units by 2020, growing at a CAGR of nearly 122% between 2013 and 2020
  • Small cells, carrier WiFi, DAS and Cloud RAN infrastructure investments will account for a $42 Billion HetNet ecosystem by 2020.
  • Small cells and carrier WiFi deployments are expected to carry more than 60% of all mobile network data traffic by 2020, which will account for $352 Billion in mobile data service revenue.
  • At present, the small cells and carrier WiFi infrastructure value chain is highly fragmented with ‘pure-play’ vendors and incumbent macrocell vendors battling to gain a higher share of the market.
  • SNS Research expects the value chain to consolidate over the coming years following several future acquisitions such as the recent acquisition of Ubiquisys by Cisco.
  • Eyeing the momentum behind small cell deployments, several DAS vendors (such as BTI Wireless) are now entering the small cells market.
  • While it is a preferred opinion among wireless carriers, aggregating outdoor small cell backhaul with macrocell infrastructure may prove to be a well challenging task. Consequently the demand for small cell backhauling has opened a new opportunity for investment, which will be a market worth nearly $6 Billion by 2020.

Table of Contents
1 Chapter 1: Introduction  28
1.1 Executive Summary  28
1.2 Topics Covered  30
1.3 Key Questions Answered  34
1.4 Key Findings  35
1.5 Methodology  36
1.6 Target Audience  37
1.7 Companies Mentioned  38
2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Small Cells & Carrier WiFi  57
2.1 An Evolving Heterogeneous Networking Ecosystem  57
2.1.1 The Growing Demand for Mobile Broadband  57
2.1.2 Is LTE the Answer to all Capacity Problems?  57
2.1.3 HetNets: An Evolution of Network Topology  59
2.2 Small Cells  60
2.2.1 What Are Small Cells?  60
2.2.2 Why Deploy Small Cells?  60
2.2.3 Small Cell Categories  62
2.2.3.1 Femtocells – Home (e)NodeBs  63
2.2.3.2 Picocells  63
2.2.3.3 Microcells  64
2.2.3.4 Metrocell: An Emerging Deployment Model  64
2.2.3.5 Will Metrocell Deployments Encompass Carrier Deployed Femtocells?  64
2.3 Carrier WiFi  65
2.3.1 Carrier WiFi Integration Approaches  66
2.3.2 Unmanaged ‘Open Access’  66
2.3.3 Managed Offload  66
2.3.3.1 SIM-based Authentication and Mobile Data Offload  66
2.3.3.2 Fully Integrated WiFi Access  66
2.4 The Business Case: What is Driving the Small Cells and Carrier WiFi Market?  67
2.4.1 Mobile Data Traffic: The Tsunami of 335 Exabytes  67
2.4.2 Endorsement from the Carrier Community  69
2.4.3 In-Building Coverage and Capacity  69
2.4.4 Enterprise Demand: BYOD is Fuelling Growth  69
2.4.5 Capacity Offload in Congested Localities  69
2.4.6 CapEx Savings  69
2.4.7 Non-Expandability of Macrocell Network  70
2.5 Challenges & Inhibitors to the Small Cells & Carrier WiFi Ecosystem  71
2.5.1 Security Concerns  71
2.5.2 Competition from Distributed Antenna System (DAS) & Alternative Solutions  71
2.5.3 Interference with Macrocell Infrastructure & Spectrum Constraints  72
2.5.4 Backhaul Requirements and Complexity  72
2.5.5 Commercial Immaturity  72
2.5.6 Economic Constraints  72
2.5.7 Device Side, Client and Operating System (OS) Issues  73
2.5.8 Deployment Challenges  73
2.5.9 Integrating Segregated WiFi Infrastructure into Mobile Networks  73
2.5.10 Impact of Macrocell LTE Rollouts: Negative or Positive?  73
2.6 Alternative Options for Offloading Mobile Network Coverage and Capacity  74
2.6.1 Macrocell Network and Spectrum Expansion  74
2.6.2 Cloud Radio Access Networks (Cloud RAN)  74
2.6.3 DAS  76
2.6.3.1 Passive DAS  76
2.6.3.2 Hybrid DAS  76
2.6.3.3 Active DAS  77
2.6.4 Caching & Mobile CDNs  77
3 Chapter 3: Integration & Offloading Technology  78
3.1 Integrating Small Cells into the Mobile Network  78
3.1.1 Integration into 3G Networks  78
3.1.1.1 Iuh based Integration: Residential/Enterprise Femtocells  78
3.1.1.2 Iub: Picocells, Microcells and Now Even Femtocells  80
3.1.2 S1: Integration into LTE Networks  81
3.1.2.1 eNB Small Cell Architecture  81
3.1.2.2 HeNB Small Cell Architecture  82
3.2 WiFi: The Evolution from an Ethernet Extension to Wireless Carrier Integration  83
3.3 Enabling Technologies for WiFi and Cellular RAN Interoperability  83
3.3.1 Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF)  83
3.3.1.1 Enabling Seamless Mobility  84
3.3.1.2 Commercial Availability of ANDSF Solutions  84
3.3.2 Hotspot 2.0  84
3.3.2.1 Discovery – 802.11u  84
3.3.2.2 Encryption – 802.11i (WPA2)  85
3.3.2.3 Authentication – 802.1x (EAP)  85
3.3.2.4 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM) 1.2  85
3.3.2.5 Passpoint™ WiFi Certification  85
3.3.3 NextGen Hotspot (NGH) Program  86
3.3.3.1 Working alongside Hotspot 2.0  86
3.3.3.2 Enabling Seamless Mobile Network Connectivity  86
3.3.4 Interworking Wireless LAN (I-WLAN)  87
3.3.5 Wireless Internet Service Provider Roaming (WISPr)  87
3.3.6 Mobility Services Advertisement Protocol  87
3.3.7 WiFi Direct™  88
3.4 Small Cell and Mobile Core Offloading Technologies  89
3.4.1 Local IP Access (LIPA)  89
3.4.1.1 Is LIPA Specifically for Small Cells?  89
3.4.1.2 Use Case Example: Local Network Multimedia Access  89
3.4.2 Selected IP Traffic Offload (SIPTO)  90
3.4.2.1 Use Case Example: Core Network Offload  90
3.4.2.2 The Downside: Is SIPTO Suitable for All Traffic Profiles?  90
3.4.3 IP Flow Mobility and Seamless Offload (IFOM)  91
3.4.3.1 Enabling Seamless Integration between WiFi and 3GPP RANs  91
3.5 WiFi and Cellular RAN Integration: Commercial Implementations to Address the HetNet
Challenge  92
3.5.1 WiFi Integration into Macrocell and Small Cell Basestation Nodes  92
3.5.2 Policy Driven Control for Small Cell & WiFi  92
3.5.2.1 InterDigital and ip.access Demonstration: Dynamic Switching between WiFi and LTE  92
3.5.3 Commercial Case Study: NGH SIM-based WiFi Access  93
4 Chapter 4: Industry Roadmap and Value Chain  94
4.1 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Industry Roadmap: 2010 – 2020  94
4.1.1 2010 – 2012: Initial Rollouts: In-building Voice Converge & Nomadic Data Access  94
4.1.2 2013 – 2015: The 4G Expansion Era – A Shift from In-building Voice to Data Optimization
95
4.1.3 2016 – 2020: The HetNet Era – Continued Proliferation of HetNets  95
4.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Value Chain  97
4.3 Embedded Technology Ecosystem  98
4.3.1 Chipset Developers  98
4.3.2 Embedded Component/Software Providers  98
4.4 HetNet RAN Ecosystem  99
4.4.1 ‘Pure-Play’ and Specialist Small Cell OEMs  99
4.4.2 WiFi Access Point OEMs  99
4.4.3 Macrocell RAN OEMs  99
4.4.4 DAS & Repeater Solution Providers  99
4.4.5 Cloud RAN Solution Providers  100
4.4.6 Other Technology & Network Component Providers/Enablers  100
4.5 Mobile Backhaul Ecosystem  101
4.5.1 Backhaul Solution Providers  101
4.6 Core Network Ecosystem  101
4.6.1 Core Network Infrastructure Providers  101
4.7 Connectivity Ecosystem  102
4.7.1 2G, 3G & 4G Wireless Carriers  102
4.7.2 WiFi Connectivity Providers  102
4.7.3 Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Providers  102
4.8 SON Ecosystem  102
4.8.1 SON Solution Providers  102
4.9 Vendor Landscape: Consolidation & Acquisitions Lead the Way  103
4.9.1 Broadcom Acquires Percello – Q4’2010  103
4.9.2 Radisys Acquires Continuous Computing – Q4’2010  103
4.9.3 Alvarion Acquires Wavion – Q4’2011  103
4.9.4 Mindspeed Technologies Acquires picoChip – Q1’2012  103
4.9.5 Ericsson Acquires BelAir Networks – Q2’2012  104
4.9.6 Crown Castle Acquires NextG Networks – Q2’2012  104
4.9.7 Qualcomm Acquires DesignArt Networks – Q3’2012  104
4.9.8 Oracle Acquires Acme Packet – Q1’2013  104
4.9.9 Oracle Acquires Tekelec – Q1’2013  105
4.9.10 Cisco Acquires Ubiquisys – Q2’2013  105
5 Chapter 5: Small Cells & Carrier WiFi Deployment Models  106
5.1 Small Cell Deployment Models  106
5.1.1 Consumer Deployment Models  106
5.1.1.1 Home/Residential  106
5.1.1.2 Enterprise  106
5.1.2 Carrier Deployment Models  107
5.1.2.1 Metro  107
5.1.2.2 Rural  107
5.1.2.3 Case Study: Vodafone’s Rural Femtocell Trial  107
5.1.3 Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS)  108
5.2 Carrier WiFi Deployment Models  109
5.2.1 Mobile Offload  109
5.2.2 SIM Based  109
5.2.3 Enterprise  109
5.2.4 Hotspot  109
5.2.5 Wholesale  109
5.2.6 Municipal WiFi  110
6 Chapter 6: Small Cells & Carrier WiFi Vertical Markets  111
6.1 Residential  111
6.2 Healthcare  111
6.3 Higher Education  111
6.4 Large Enterprises  112
6.5 SMBs  112
6.6 Retail  112
6.7 Construction  112
6.8 Public Sector  113
6.9 Public Safety and Defence  113
7 Chapter 7: Small Cell Backhaul  114
7.1 Small Cell Backhaul Technology  114
7.1.1 Ethernet over Copper  114
7.1.2 Ethernet over Fiber  114
7.1.3 DSL  114
7.1.4 Non-Line of Site (NLOS) Microwave  115
7.1.5 Point to Point (P2P) Microwave – 6-60 GHz  115
7.1.6 Point to Multipoint (P2MP) Microwave – 6-60 GHz  115
7.1.7 Milimeter Wave (E-band) – Licensed and Unlicensed  115
7.1.8 Satellite Based Backhaul  115
7.2 Requirements for Small Cell Backhaul  116
7.2.1 Form Factor & Environmental Hardening  116
7.2.2 Power Supply & Consumption  116
7.2.3 Installation & Provisioning  116
7.2.4 Integration of OAM and SON Capabilities  116
7.2.5 Deployment & Maintenance Cost  117
7.3 Key Issues  118
7.3.1 Backhaul Sharing: Can Small Cells and Macrocells Share Resources?  118
7.3.2 Coverage Challenges  118
7.3.3 Capacity/Peak Throughput Challenges  118
7.3.4 Will Millimeter Wave be the Preferred Outdoor Small Cell Backhaul Solution?  118
7.3.5 Is there a market for Satellite based Small Cell Backhaul  119
7.3.6 Assessing the Impact of the SCaaS Ecosystem  119
8 Chapter 8: Standardization & Regulatory Initiatives  120
8.1 Small Cell Forum  120
8.1.1 Mission  120
8.1.2 Scope of Work  120
8.1.3 Working Groups  121
8.1.3.1 Marketing and Promotions Group  122
8.1.3.2 Radio & Physical Layer Group  122
8.1.3.3 Network Group  122
8.1.3.4 Regulatory Group  122
8.1.3.5 Services Group  122
8.1.3.6 Interoperability Group  122
8.1.3.7 Special Interest Focus Groups: Backhaul, LTE, Rural & 3GPP2 Standards  123
8.2 Wireless Broadband Alliance (WBA)  123
8.2.1 Mission  123
8.2.2 Scope of Work  123
8.2.3 Working Groups  124
8.2.3.1 Business Workgroup  124
8.2.3.2 Industry Engagement Workgroup  124
8.2.3.3 Roaming Workgroup  124
8.3 WiFi Alliance  125
8.3.1 Mission  125
8.3.2 Certification Programs  125
8.3.2.1 Core Certification  125
8.3.2.2 MiracastTM  126
8.3.2.3 Tunneled Direct Link Setup (TDLS)  126
8.3.2.4 PasspointTM  126
8.3.2.5 WiFi DirectTM  126
8.3.2.6 WiFi Protected SetupTM  127
8.3.2.7 WiFi Multimedia (WMM)TM  127
8.3.2.8 WMM-Power Save  127
8.3.2.9 Voice-Personal: Voice over WiFi  127
8.3.2.10 Voice-Enterprise: Voice over WiFi  127
8.3.2.11 CWG-RF  128
8.3.2.12 WMM-Admission Control  128
8.3.2.13 IBSS with WiFi Protected Setup  128
8.4 HetNet Forum  129
8.4.1 Mission  129
8.4.2 Scope of Work  129
8.4.3 Governance & Membership  129
8.5 3GPP  131
8.5.1 Mission  131
8.5.2 Small Cell Standardisation Activities  131
8.6 3GPP2  132
8.6.1 Mission  132
8.6.2 Small Cell Standardisation Activities  132
8.7 Broadband Forum  133
8.7.1 Mission  133
8.7.2 Small Cell Standardisation Activities  133
8.8 WiMAX Forum  134
8.8.1 Mission  134
8.8.2 Small Cell Standardisation Activities  134
8.9 Prominent Collaborations  136
8.9.1 WBA and WiFi Alliance  136
8.9.2 Small Cell Forum and GSMA  136
8.9.3 WBA, GSMA and Small Cell Forum  136
8.9.3.1 Integrating on a Network Level  137
8.9.3.2 Setting the Stage for Advanced Traffic Management  137
9 Chapter 9: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Deployments  138
9.1 Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Case Studies  138
9.1.1 BT  138
9.1.2 Cellcom  138
9.1.3 Colt Telecom  138
9.1.4 Cloudberry Mobile  139
9.1.5 ClearSky  139
9.1.6 Virgin Media  139
9.2 Carrier WiFi  140
9.2.1 AT&T Mobility  140
9.2.2 Comcast  140
9.2.3 Cox Communications  140
9.2.4 MetroPCS  141
9.2.5 Sprint  141
9.2.6 T-Mobile USA  141
9.2.7 Verizon Wireless  141
9.2.8 Free Mobile  142
9.2.9 BT  142
9.2.10 MegaFon  142
9.2.11 Orange (France Telecom)  142
9.2.12 Portugal Telecom  143
9.2.13 Telefónica Moviles (Spain)  143
9.2.14 T-Mobile Austria  143
9.2.15 Zain Saudi Arabia  143
9.2.16 China Mobile  143
9.2.17 KDDI  143
9.2.18 LG Uplus  144
9.2.19 NTT Broadband Platform  144
9.2.20 TIM Brasil  144
9.2.21 Other Carriers  144
9.3 Small Cell Deployments  145
9.3.1 Sprint  145
9.3.2 StarHub  145
9.3.3 Verizon Wireless  145
9.3.4 Vodafone UK  145
9.3.5 AT&T Mobility  145
9.3.6 SFR  146
9.3.7 NTT DoCoMo  146
9.3.8 China Unicom  146
9.3.9 Optimus Portugal  146
9.3.10 SingTel  146
9.3.11 Vodafone Spain  146
9.3.12 SoftBank  146
9.3.13 Vodafone Qatar  146
9.3.14 KDDI  147
9.3.15 Vodafone Greece  147
9.3.16 Movistar  147
9.3.17 T-Mobile UK  147
9.3.18 Moldtelecom  147
9.3.19 SK Telecom  147
9.3.20 Vodafone New Zealand  147
9.3.21 Vodafone Ireland  147
9.3.22 Network Norway  148
9.3.23 TOT Thailand  148
9.3.24 Optus  148
9.3.25 Vodafone Australia  148
9.3.26 MegaFon  148
9.3.27 Vodafone Italy  148
9.3.28 Vodafone Hungary  148
9.3.29 Orange (France Telecom)  148
9.3.30 Orange Romania  149
9.3.31 MTC  149
9.3.32 Vodafone Czech Republic  149
9.3.33 Beeline  149
9.3.34 Vodafone Netherlands  149
9.3.35 Cosmote  149
9.3.36 Vodafone Romania  149
9.3.37 Vodafone Portugal  150
9.3.38 Mosaic Telecom  150
9.3.39 Free Mobile  150
9.3.40 Three UK  150
9.3.41 China Mobile  150
9.3.42 Zain Bahrain  150
9.3.43 O2  150
9.3.44 Bouygues Telecom  150
9.3.45 Vodafone Germany  151
9.3.46 Vodafone Greece  151
9.3.47 EE (Everything Everywhere)  151
9.3.48 Other Commitments  151
9.4 Case Studies  152
9.4.1 Sprint/Softbank Acquisition: Assessing the Impact on the Small Cells Ecosystem  152
9.4.2 The Impact of LTE & Small Cells on Tier 2/3 CDMA Carriers in North America  153
10 Chapter 10: ‘Pure-Play’ and Specialist Small Cell Vendors  154
10.1 Airspan  154
10.2 Airvana  155
10.3 Alpha Networks  156
10.4 Anvaya Networks  157
10.5 Argela  158
10.6 ARItel (ETRI)  159
10.7 Askey Computer Corporation  160
10.8 Contela  161
10.9 Hay Systems Limited (HSL)  162
10.10 ip.access  163
10.11 Juni Global  164
10.12 Minieum Networks  165
10.13 PureWave Networks  166
10.14 SK Telesys  167
10.15 SpiderCloud  168
10.16 TEKTELIC Communications  169
10.17 Ubee-AirWalk  170
10.18 Ubiquisys (Acquired by Cisco)  171
10.19 Qucell  172
11 Chapter 11: Distributed Antenna System (DAS) & Repeater Solution Providers  173
11.1 Axell Wireless  173
11.2 Axis Teknologies  174
11.3 BTI Wireless  175
11.4 Cellular Specialities, Inc. (CSI) – Acquired by Goodman Networks  176
11.5 Comba Telecom  177
11.6 CommScope  178
11.7 Communication Components Inc. (CCI)  179
11.8 DeltaNode  180
11.9 Ethertronics  181
11.10 ExteNet Systems  182
11.11 InnerWireless (Acquired by Black Box)  183
11.12 Mesaplexx  184
11.13 MobileAccess (Acquired by Corning)  185
11.14 Nexius  186
11.15 NextG Networks (Acquired by Crown Castle)  187
11.16 CellO (Optiway and Cellvine)  188
11.17 Powerwave Technologies  189
11.18 RF Window  190
11.19 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)  191
11.20 SOLiD Technologies  192
11.21 Shyam Telecom  193
11.22 TE Connectivity (Tyco Electronics Connectivity)  194
11.23 Ubidyne GmBH  195
11.24 Wi-Ex  196
11.25 Wilson Electronics  197
11.26 ZinWave  198
12 Chapter 12: Carrier WiFi Focused Vendors  199
12.1 4ipnet  199
12.2 Alvarion (Wavion)  200
12.3 Aruba Networks  201
12.4 BelAir Networks (Acquired by Ericsson)  202
12.5 Edgewater Wireless  203
12.6 GoNet Systems  204
12.7 Netgear  205
12.8 Option N.V.  206
12.9 Ruckus Wireless  207
12.10 Motorola Solutions  208
13 Chapter 13: Cloud RAN Solution Providers  209
13.1 6WIND  209
13.2 ADLINK Technology  210
13.3 ASOCS  211
13.4 Intel Corporation  212
14 Chapter 14: HetNet Focussed SON Solution Providers  213
14.1 Actix  213
14.2 Aircom International  214
14.3 AirHop Communications  215
14.4 Astellia  216
14.5 Celcite  217
14.6 Eden Rock Communications  218
14.7 Infovista (Mentum)  219
14.8 Intucell Systems (Acquired by Cisco)  220
14.9 JDSU (Arieso)  221
14.10 Reverb Networks  222
15 Chapter 15: Wireless Network (Macrocell, Core) Infrastructure Vendors  223
15.1 Alcatel-Lucent  223
15.2 Cisco  224
15.3 Datang Telecom  225
15.4 Ericsson  226
15.5 Fujitsu  227
15.6 Ericsson-LG  228
15.7 Huawei  229
15.8 Hitachi  230
15.9 Mitsubishi  231
15.10 NEC  232
15.11 Nokia Siemens Networks  233
15.12 NTT DoCoMo  234
15.13 Samsung  235
15.14 ZTE  236
16 Chapter 16: Chipset, Software and Component Vendors  237
16.1 Ablaze  237
16.2 Aricent  238
16.3 Altera  239
16.4 Broadcom  240
16.5 Cavium  241
16.6 Coherent Logix  242
16.7 Freescale Semiconductor  243
16.8 LSI  244
16.9 Maxim Integrated  245
16.10 Mindspeed Technologies  246
16.11 mimoOn  247
16.12 Node-H  248
16.13 Nomor Research  249
16.14 Octasic  250
16.15 Public Wireless  251
16.16 Qualcomm  252
16.17 Radisys  253
16.18 Rakon  254
16.19 SAI Technology  255
16.20 Tata Elxsi  256
16.21 Texas Instruments  257
16.22 Xilinx  258
16.23 u-blox  259
17 Chapter 17: Technology Providers  260
17.1 AltoBridge  260
17.2 Aepona  261
17.3 Acme Packet (Acquired by Oracle)  262
17.4 Accuris Networks  263
17.5 Agilent Technologies  264
17.6 Aicent  265
17.7 Amdocs  266
17.8 Applied Communication Sciences  267
17.9 Aptilo Networks  268
17.10 Advanced Wireless Technology Group (AWTG)  269
17.11 BandwidthX  270
17.12 Birdstep Technology ASA  271
17.13 BSG Wireless  272
17.14 EDX Wireless  273
17.15 Front Porch  274
17.16 Green Packet  275
17.17 InterDigital  276
17.18 Kineto Wireless  277
17.19 Nash Technologies  278
17.20 Netgem  279
17.21 Nomadix  280
17.22 Quortus  281
17.23 Smith Micro Software  282
17.24 Syniverse Technologies  283
17.25 Stoke  284
17.26 WeFi  285
18 Chapter 18: WiFi Network Providers  286
18.1 AlwaysOn  286
18.2 Boingo Wireless  287
18.3 BSkyB (The Cloud)  288
18.4 Devicescape Software  289
18.5 Fon Wireless  290
18.6 iPass  291
18.7 Quadriga Worldwide  292
18.8 Towerstream Corporation  293
19 Chapter 19: Small Cell Backhaul Solution Providers  294
19.1 Athena Wireless Communications  294
19.2 Avanti  295
19.3 Aviat Networks  296
19.4 BridgeWave Communications  297
19.5 BLiNQ Networks  298
19.6 BluWan  299
19.7 CCS  300
19.8 Ceragon  301
19.9 Cambridge Broadband Networks (CBNL)  302
19.10 Cambium Networks  303
19.11 DragonWave  304
19.12 E-Band Communications  305
19.13 FastBack Networks  306
19.14 iDirect  307
19.15 Intracom Telecom  308
19.16 LightPoint Communications  309
19.17 RADWIN  310
19.18 Siklu  311
19.19 Sub10 Systems  312
19.20 Taqua  313
19.21 Tarana Wireless  314
19.22 Vubiq  315
20 Chapter 20: Market Analysis and Forecasts  316
20.1 The Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Market: 2013 – 2020  316
20.1.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base  316
20.1.1.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base Compared  317
20.1.1.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region  317
20.1.2 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue  318
20.1.2.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue Compared  319
20.1.2.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region  320
20.1.3 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue  321
20.1.3.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue Compared  321
20.1.3.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue by Region  322
20.2 The Global Small Cell Market: 2013 – 2020  323
20.2.1 Global Throughput of Small Cell Data Traffic  323
20.2.2 Global Small Cell Installed Base  323
20.2.3 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro)  324
20.2.3.1 Global Femtocell Installed Base  324
20.2.3.2 Global Picocell Installed Base  325
20.2.3.3 Global Microcell Installed Base  325
20.2.4 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise,
Metro, Rural)  326
20.2.4.1 Home/Residential Small Cell Installed Base  327
20.2.4.2 Enterprise Small Cell Installed Base  327
20.2.4.3 Metro Small Cell Installed Base  328
20.2.4.4 Rural Small Cell Installed Base  328
20.2.5 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G)  329
20.2.5.1 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Installed Base  330
20.2.5.2 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Installed Base  330
20.2.6 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA,
CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX)  331
20.2.6.1 GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Installed Base  331
20.2.6.2 CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Installed Base  332
20.2.6.3 LTE FDD Small Cell Installed Base  332
20.2.6.4 TD-LTE Small Cell Installed Base  333
20.2.6.5 WiMAX Small Cell Installed Base  333
20.2.7 Small Cell Installed Base by Region  334
20.2.8 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  335
20.2.9 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro)  336
20.2.9.1 Global Femtocell Unit Shipments & Revenue  337
20.2.9.2 Global Picocell Unit Shipments & Revenue  338
20.2.9.3 Global Microcell Unit Shipments & Revenue  339
20.2.10 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Deployment Model (Home/Residential,
Enterprise, Metro, Rural)  340
20.2.10.1 Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  341
20.2.10.2 Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  342
20.2.10.3 Metro Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  343
20.2.10.4 Rural Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  344
20.2.11 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Air Interface Technology Generation
(2G, 3G, 4G)  345
20.2.11.1 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  346
20.2.11.2 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  347
20.2.12 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Air Interface Technology (GSM/WCDMA/
HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX)  348
20.2.12.1 GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  349
20.2.12.2 CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  350
20.2.12.3 LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  351
20.2.12.4 TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  352
20.2.12.5 WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue  353
20.2.13 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region  354
20.2.14 Global Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue  355
20.2.15 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region  355
20.3 The Global Carrier WiFi Market: 2013 – 2020  356
20.3.1 Global Throughput of Carrier WiFi Data Traffic  356
20.3.2 Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base  356
20.3.3 Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point
Controllers)  357
20.3.3.1 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base  357
20.3.3.2 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Installed Base  358
20.3.4 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi
Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi)  358
20.3.4.1 Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Installed Base  359
20.3.4.2 Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Installed Base  359
20.3.5 Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region  360
20.3.6 Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue  361
20.3.7 Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Equipment Type (Access Points,
Access Point Controllers)  362
20.3.7.1 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue  363
20.3.7.2 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments & Revenue  364
20.3.8 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue by Integration Approach
(Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi)  365
20.3.8.1 Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue  366
20.3.8.2 Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue  367
20.3.9 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region  368
20.3.10 Global Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue  369
20.3.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region  369
20.4 The Global Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Market: 2013 – 2020  370
20.4.1 Global Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue  370
20.4.2 Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue by Region  370
20.5 The Global Small Cells Backhaul Market: 2013 – 2020  371
20.5.1 Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  371
20.5.2 Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology  372
20.5.2.1 Ethernet over Copper Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  373
20.5.2.2 Ethernet over Fiber Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  373
20.5.2.3 DSL Modems and DSLAMs Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  374
20.5.2.4 NLOS Microwave (Below 6 GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  374
20.5.2.5 PTP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  375
20.5.2.6 PTMP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  375
20.5.2.7 Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  376
20.5.2.8 Millimeter Wave (Licensed 71-76GHz, 81-86GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending
376
20.5.2.9 Satellite Based Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending  377
20.5.3 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Region  377
20.6 The Global Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Market: 2013 – 2020  378
20.6.1 Global Throughput of Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Data Traffic  378
20.6.2 Global Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending  378
20.6.3 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending by Region  379
20.7 The Global Cloud Radio Access Network (Cloud RAN) Market: 2013 – 2020  380
20.7.1 Global Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending  380
20.7.2 Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending by Region  380
20.8 The Global Self-Organizing Network (SON) Market: 2013 – 2020  381
20.8.1 Global Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending  381
20.8.2 Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending by Region  381
20.9 The Global Mobile Network Data Service Market: 2013 – 2020  382
20.9.1 Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue  382
20.9.2 Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Access Network Type (Macrocell, Small
Cell, Carrier WiFi, DAS)  382
20.9.2.1 Macrocell based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue  383
20.9.2.2 Small Cell based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue  383
20.9.2.3 Carrier WiFi based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue  384
20.9.2.4 DAS based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue  384
20.9.3 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Region  385
20.10 North America Market: 2013 – 2020  386
20.10.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in North America  386
20.10.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in North America  386
20.10.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America  387
20.10.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America  387
20.10.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in North America  388
20.10.6 Small Cell Installed Base in North America  389
20.10.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America  389
20.10.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America  390
20.10.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America  391
20.10.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America  391
20.10.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America  392
20.10.12 Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in North America  393
20.10.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in North America  393
20.10.14 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in North America  394
20.10.15 Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in North America  394
20.10.16 Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in North America  395
20.11 Asia Pacific Market: 2013 – 2020  396
20.11.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Asia Pacific  396
20.11.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific  396
20.11.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific  397
20.11.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific  397
20.11.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific  398
20.11.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Asia Pacific  399
20.11.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific  399
20.11.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific  400
20.11.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific  401
20.11.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific  401
20.11.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific  402
20.11.12 Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Asia Pacific  403
20.11.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific  403
20.11.14 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific  404
20.11.15 Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific  404
20.11.16 Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Asia Pacific  405
20.12 Western Europe Market: 2013 – 2020  406
20.12.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Western Europe  406
20.12.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Western Europe  406
20.12.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe  407
20.12.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe  407
20.12.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Western Europe  408
20.12.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Western Europe  409
20.12.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe  409
20.12.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe  410
20.12.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe  411
20.12.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe  411
20.12.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe  412
20.12.12 Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Western Europe  413
20.12.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe  413
20.12.14 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe  414
20.12.15 Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe  414
20.12.16 Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Western Europe  415
20.13 Eastern Europe Market: 2013 – 2020  416
20.13.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Eastern Europe  416
20.13.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe  416
20.13.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe  417
20.13.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe  417
20.13.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe  418
20.13.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Eastern Europe  419
20.13.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe  419
20.13.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe  420
20.13.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe  421
20.13.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe  421
20.13.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe  422
20.13.12 Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Eastern Europe  423
20.13.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe  423
20.13.14 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe  424
20.13.15 Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe  424
20.13.16 Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Eastern Europe  425
20.14 Middle East & Africa Market: 2013 – 2020  426
20.14.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Middle East & Africa  426
20.14.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa  426
20.14.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa  427
20.14.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa  427
20.14.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa  428
20.14.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Middle East & Africa  429
20.14.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa  429
20.14.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa  430
20.14.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa  431
20.14.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa  431
20.14.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa  432
20.14.12 Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Middle East & Africa  433
20.14.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa  433
20.14.14 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa  434
20.14.15 Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa  434
20.14.16 Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Middle East & Africa  435
20.15 Latin & Central America Market: 2013 – 2020  436
20.15.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Latin & Central America  436
20.15.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America  436
20.15.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America  437
20.15.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America  437
20.15.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America  438
20.15.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Latin & Central America  439
20.15.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America  439
20.15.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America  440
20.15.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America  441
20.15.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America  441
20.15.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America  442
20.15.12 Small Cell as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Latin & Central America  443
20.15.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America  443
20.15.14 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America
444
20.15.15 Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America  444
20.15.16 Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Latin & Central America  445
21 Chapter 21: Conclusion and Strategic Recommendations  446
21.1 The Formula for Success: Selecting the Right Combination of Small Cell Form Factors  446
21.2 SON Integration is Key  446
21.3 Network Visibility & OAM  447
21.4 Addressing Network Security: IPsec  447
21.5 Small Cells, WiFi Cloud RAN or DAS: Which Implementation will lead HetNet Deployments?448
21.6 Rise of the Non-Macro Vendors  448
21.7 Strategic Recommendations  449
21.7.1 Recommendations for HetNet Solution Vendors  449
21.7.2 Recommendations for Wireless Carriers  449
21.7.3 Recommendations for Macrocell Infrastructure Vendors  450
21.7.4 Recommendations for Backhaul Solution Providers  450

List of Figures

Figure 1: Global LTE Subscriptions by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Millions)  58
Figure 2: HetNet Architecture  59
Figure 3: Small Cell Coverage Range Comparison  61
Figure 4: Small Cell Characteristics & Comparison to Macrocells  62
Figure 5: Mobile Network Data Offloading via WiFi  65
Figure 6: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  67
Figure 7: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Access Network Type (Macrocell, Small Cells, Carrier WiFi,
DAS): 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  68
Figure 8: Global Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  71
Figure 9: Cloud RAN Architecture  75
Figure 10: Iuh based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network  79
Figure 11: Iub based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network  80
Figure 12: S1 Interface based Small Cell Integration in an LTE Network  81
Figure 13: Small Cells & Carrier WiFi Industry Roadmap: 2010 – 2020  94
Figure 14: Annual Global Throughput of Small Cells and Carrier WiFi Data Networks: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  96
Figure 15: The Small Cells & Carrier WiFi Value Chain  97
Figure 16: SCaaS Provider and Wireless Carrier Responsibilities in a SCaaS Offering  108
Figure 17: Small Cell Forum’s Scope  120
Figure 18: Small Cell Forum Working Groups  121
Figure 19: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units)  316
Figure 20: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base Compared: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  317
Figure 21: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  317
Figure 22: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units)  318
Figure 23: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  318
Figure 24: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments Compared: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  319
Figure 25: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue Compared: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  319
Figure 26: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  320
Figure 27: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  320
Figure 28: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  321
Figure 29: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  321
Figure 30: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  322
Figure 31: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over Small Cells: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  323
Figure 32: Global Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  323
Figure 33: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  324
Figure 34: Global Femtocell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  324
Figure 35: Global Picocell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  325
Figure 36: Global Microcell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  325
Figure 37: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  326
Figure 38: Home/Residential Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  327
Figure 39: Enterprise Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  327
Figure 40: Metro Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  328
Figure 41: Rural Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  328
Figure 42: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  329
Figure 43: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM-WCDMA) Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  330
Figure 44: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  330
Figure 45: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TDLTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  331
Figure 46: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  331
Figure 47: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  332
Figure 48: LTE FDD Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  332
Figure 49: TD-LTE Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  333
Figure 50: WiMAX Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  333
Figure 51: Small Cell Installed Base by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  334
Figure 52: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units)  335
Figure 53: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  335
Figure 54: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units)  336
Figure 55: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  336
Figure 56: Global Femtocell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units)  337
Figure 57: Global Femtocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  337
Figure 58: Global Picocell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units)  338
Figure 59: Global Picocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  338
Figure 60: Global Microcell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Millions of Units)  339
Figure 61: Global Microcell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  339
Figure 62: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Deployment Model (Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  340
Figure 63: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Deployment Model (Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  340
Figure 64: Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  341
Figure 65: Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  341
Figure 66: Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  342
Figure 67: Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  342
Figure 68: Metro Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  343
Figure 69: Metro Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  343
Figure 70: Rural Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  344
Figure 71: Rural Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  344
Figure 72: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  345
Figure 73: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  345
Figure 74: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  346
Figure 75: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  346
Figure 76: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  347
Figure 77: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  347
Figure 78: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD, TDLTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  348
Figure 79: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD, TD-LTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  348
Figure 80: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  349
Figure 81: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  349
Figure 82: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  350
Figure 83: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  350
Figure 84: LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  351
Figure 85: LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  351
Figure 86: TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  352
Figure 87: TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  352
Figure 88: WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  353
Figure 89: WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  353
Figure 90: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  354
Figure 91: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  354
Figure 92: Global Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  355
Figure 93: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  355
Figure 94: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over Carrier WiFi: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  356
Figure 95: Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  356
Figure 96: Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  357
Figure 97: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  357
Figure 98: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  358
Figure 99: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  358
Figure 100: Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  359
Figure 101: Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Installed Base: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  359
Figure 102: Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  360
Figure 103: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  361
Figure 104: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  361
Figure 105: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  362
Figure 106: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  362
Figure 107: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  363
Figure 108: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  363
Figure 109: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  364
Figure 110: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  364
Figure 111: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi): 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  365
Figure 112: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  365
Figure 113: Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  366
Figure 114: Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  366
Figure 115: Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  367
Figure 116: Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  367
Figure 117: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  368
Figure 118: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  368
Figure 119: Global Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  369
Figure 120: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  369
Figure 121: Global Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  370
Figure 122: Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  370
Figure 123: Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  371
Figure 124: Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  372
Figure 125: Ethernet over Copper Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  373
Figure 126: Ethernet over Fiber Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  373
Figure 127: DSL Modems and DSLAMs Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  374
Figure 128: NLOS Microwave (Below 6 GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  374
Figure 129: PTP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  375
Figure 130: PTMP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  375
Figure 131: Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  376
Figure 132: Millimeter Wave (Licensed 71-76GHz, 81-86GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  376
Figure 133: Satellite Based Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  377
Figure 134: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  377
Figure 135: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS): 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  378
Figure 136: Global Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  378
Figure 137: Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  379
Figure 138: Global Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  380
Figure 139: Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  380
Figure 140: Global Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  381
Figure 141: Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  381
Figure 142: Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  382
Figure 143: Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Access Network Type (Macrocell, Small Cell, Carrier WiFi, DAS): 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  382
Figure 144: Macrocell based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  383
Figure 145: Small Cell based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  383
Figure 146: Carrier WiFi based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  384
Figure 147: DAS based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  384
Figure 148: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  385
Figure 149: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  386
Figure 150: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  386
Figure 151: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  387
Figure 152: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  387
Figure 153: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  388
Figure 154: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  388
Figure 155: Small Cell Installed Base in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  389
Figure 156: Small Cell Unit Shipments in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  389
Figure 157: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  390
Figure 158: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  390
Figure 159: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  391
Figure 160: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  391
Figure 161: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  392
Figure 162: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  392
Figure 163: Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  393
Figure 164: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  393
Figure 165: Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  394
Figure 166: Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  394
Figure 167: Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in North America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  395
Figure 168: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  396
Figure 169: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  396
Figure 170: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  397
Figure 171: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  397
Figure 172: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  398
Figure 173: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  398
Figure 174: Small Cell Installed Base in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  399
Figure 175: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  399
Figure 176: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  400
Figure 177: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  400
Figure 178: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  401
Figure 179: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  401
Figure 180: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  402
Figure 181: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  402
Figure 182: Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  403
Figure 183: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  403
Figure 184: Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  404
Figure 185: Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  404
Figure 186: Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  405
Figure 187: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  406
Figure 188: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  406
Figure 189: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  407
Figure 190: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  407
Figure 191: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  408
Figure 192: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  408
Figure 193: Small Cell Installed Base in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  409
Figure 194: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  409
Figure 195: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  410
Figure 196: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  410
Figure 197: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  411
Figure 198: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  411
Figure 199: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  412
Figure 200: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  412
Figure 201: Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  413
Figure 202: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  413
Figure 203: Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  414
Figure 204: Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  414
Figure 205: Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  415
Figure 206: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  416
Figure 207: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  416
Figure 208: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  417
Figure 209: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  417
Figure 210: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  418
Figure 211: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  418
Figure 212: Small Cell Installed Base in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  419
Figure 213: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  419
Figure 214: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  420
Figure 215: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  420
Figure 216: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  421
Figure 217: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  421
Figure 218: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  422
Figure 219: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  422
Figure 220: Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  423
Figure 221: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  423
Figure 222: Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  424
Figure 223: Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  424
Figure 224: Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  425
Figure 225: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  426
Figure 226: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  426
Figure 227: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  427
Figure 228: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  427
Figure 229: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  428
Figure 230: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  428
Figure 231: Small Cell Installed Base in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  429
Figure 232: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  429
Figure 233: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  430
Figure 234: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  430
Figure 235: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  431
Figure 236: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  431
Figure 237: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  432
Figure 238: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  432
Figure 239: Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  433
Figure 240: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  433
Figure 241: Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  434
Figure 242: Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  434
Figure 243: Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  435
Figure 244: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes)  436
Figure 245: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  436
Figure 246: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  437
Figure 247: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  437
Figure 248: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  438
Figure 249: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  438
Figure 250: Small Cell Installed Base in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  439
Figure 251: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  439
Figure 252: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  440
Figure 253: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  440
Figure 254: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  441
Figure 255: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Thousands of Units)  441
Figure 256: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  442
Figure 257: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  442
Figure 258: Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  443
Figure 259: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  443
Figure 260: Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion)  444
Figure 261: Cloud RAN Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  444
Figure 262: Self-Organizing Network (SON) Solution Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 ($ Million)  445

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